Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. Social turmoil of late-seventeenth century North America
    2. Illustration: King Philip's War
      1. Indian attacks on southern New England colonial settlements
      2. Defeat of Indian rebellion
      3. Devastation of southern New England Indians
  2. Global Expansion and England's Empire
    1. Mercantilism
      1. Principles
      2. Adoption by England
      3. Place of North America in England's economic system
    2. New York
      1. Origins
      2. Growth and significance
        1. Military
        2. Commercial
        3. Population
      3. Status of inhabitants
        1. Religious groups
        2. Ethnic groups
        3. Women
        4. Blacks
        5. Landed elite
        6. Iroquois Confederacy
        7. Charter of Liberties and Privileges
    3. Carolina
      1. Origins
      2. Relations with Indians
      3. Lures for settlers
      4. Introduction of plantation slavery
    4. Pennsylvania
      1. Origins
      2. William Penn
      3. Quaker principles
      4. Relations with Indians
      5. Lures for settlers
      6. Growth
  3. Origins of American Slavery
    1. Reasons for rise of black slavery in British colonies
      1. Growing demand for plantation labor
      2. Practical advantages over other alternatives
      3. English cultural perceptions
        1. Of "alien peoples" in general
        2. Of Africans in particular
    2. Slavery in world history
    3. Slavery in the West Indies
      1. Rapid rise during seventeenth century
      2. Centrality of sugar production
    4. Rise of Chesapeake slavery
      1. Early decades
        1. Predominance of servants from England
        2. Ambiguities of lines between black and white, slavery and freedom
          1. In custom
          2. In law
      2. Mid-seventeenth century
        1. Gradual divergence in status of blacks and whites
        2. Growing practice of slavery
      3. Bacon's Rebellion
        1. Background
          1. Governor William Berkeley's favoritism toward wealthy planters
          2. Diminishing prospects, rising hardships of small farmers
          3. Berkeley's restraints on white settlement
        2. Narrative
          1. Frontier attacks on Indians
          2. Mobilization of diverse rebels by Nathaniel Bacon
          3. Grievances and objectives
          4. Burning of Jamestown
          5. Attacks on governor's supporters
          6. Suppression of rebellion
        3. Long-term consequences
          1. Expanded freedoms and opportunities for white Virginians
          2. Accelerated shift from white indentured servitude to black slavery
      4. Early eighteenth century
        1. Legal codification of slavery, white supremacy
        2. Consolidation of slavery as basis of Virginia economy
      5. Slave resistance
  4. Colonies in Crisis
    1. The Glorious Revolution and repercussions for colonial America
      1. The Glorious Revolution in England
        1. Establishment of Parliamentary supremacy
        2. Entrenchment of Protestant succession to throne
        3. Affirmation of English rights and liberties
      2. The Glorious Revolution in America
        1. Abolition of Dominion of New England; restoration of New England colonial governments
        2. Maryland
        3. New York; Leisler's Rebellion
        4. Massachusetts
    2. The prosecution of witches
      1. Seventeenth-century belief in supernatural
        1. Generally around Europe and America
        2. Among Puritans
      2. Customary conceptions and treatment of "witches"
      3. Salem witch trials
        1. Mounting hysteria
        2. Accusations, trials, and punishment
        3. Ebbing of hysteria
        4. Discrediting of witch-hunting; growing commitment to scientific explanation
  5. The Growth of Colonial America
    1. Population growth
      1. Remarkable pace
      2. Causes
    2. Increasing diversity of population
      1. Higher rate of non-English to English arrivals
        1. Efforts by London to stem outflow of skilled English
        2. Efforts by London to encourage settlement by others
      2. Africans
      3. English convicts
      4. Scots and Scots-Irish
      5. Germans
    3. Lures to settlement
      1. Religious diversity
      2. Availability of land
      3. Demand for skills
      4. Other freedoms and opportunities
    4. Indians and the colonies
      1. Place in imperial system as traders, consumers, military allies
      2. Growing conflict with backcountry settlers
    5. Patterns of agriculture
      1. New England
      2. Backcountry
      3. Middle Colonies
    6. Consumer revolution
      1. As producer of goods
      2. As consumer of goods
    7. Colonial cities
      1. Growth
      2. Functions
        1. Financial
        2. Commercial
        3. Cultural
      3. Merchants
      4. Artisans
  6. Social Classes in the Colonies
    1. The colonial elites
      1. Rising dominance
      2. Regional variants
        1. Mercantile elite of New England and Middle Colonies
        2. Planter elite of Chesapeake and Lower South
      3. Means of social and political hegemony
      4. "Anglicization"
        1. Aristocratic lifestyle
        2. Hierarchical worldview
    2. The poor
      1. Poverty in the colonies
        1. Slaves
        2. Landless tenants and wage earners
      2. Attitudes and policies toward the poor
        1. Image as responsible for own poverty
        2. Workhouses
        3. Apprenticeship
        4. "Warning out" of and expulsion from communities
    3. Middling ranks
      1. Predominance of
      2. Basis in land ownership
      3. Women and the household economy
        1. Women had great familial responsibility
        2. All members of family contributed economically
        3. Often, women's contribution separated prosperity from starvation
    4. North America at mid-century
      1. By mid-1800s, British American colonies were remarkably diverse
      2. Elites dominated political and economic life
      3. Great economic growth; relative wealth
      4. Greater opportunities for freedom, especially religion
      5. Slaves and indentured servants did not experience such freedom