Chapter Study Outline

  1. [Introduction: Statue of Freedom]
  2. Fruits of Manifest Destiny
    1. Continental Expansion
      1. In the 1840s, slavery moved to the center stage of American politics because of territorial expansion.
    2. The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and California
      1. Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821.
        1. The northern frontier of Mexico was California, New Mexico, and Texas.
      2. California's non-Indian population in 1821 was vastly outnumbered by Indians.
    3. The Texas Revolt
      1. The first part of Mexico to be settled by significant numbers of Americans was Texas.
        1. Moses Austin
      2. Alarmed that its grip on the area was weakening, the Mexican government in 1830 annulled existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States.
        1. Stephen Austin led the call from American settlers demanding greater autonomy within Mexico.
      3. General Antonio López de Santa Anna sent an army in 1835 to impose central authority.
      4. Rebels formed a provisional government that soon called for Texan independence.
        1. The Alamo
        2. Sam Houston
      5. Texas desired annexation by the United States, but neither Jackson nor Van Buren took action because of political concerns regarding adding another slave state.
    4. The Election of 1844
      1. The issue of Texas annexation was linked to slavery and affected the nominations of presidential candidates.
        1. Clay and Van Buren agreed to keep Texas out of the presidential campaign.
      2. James Polk, a Tennessee slaveholder and friend of Jackson, received the Democratic nomination instead of Van Buren.
        1. Supported Texas annexation
        2. Supported "reoccupation" of all of Oregon
    5. The Road to War
      1. Polk had four clearly defined goals:
        1. Reduce the tariff
        2. Reestablish the Independent Treasury system
        3. Settle the Oregon dispute
        4. Bring California into the Union
      2. Polk initiated war with Mexico to get California.
    6. The War and Its Critics
      1. Although the majority of Americans supported the war, a vocal minority feared the only aim of the war was to acquire new land for the expansion of slavery.
        1. Henry David Thoreau wrote "On Civil Disobedience."
        2. Abraham Lincoln questioned Polk's right to declare war.
    7. Combat in Mexico
      1. Combat took place on three fronts.
        1. California and the "bear flag republic"
        2. General Stephen Kearney and Santa Fe
        3. Winfield Scott and central Mexico
      2. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
    8. Race and Manifest Destiny
      1. A region that for centuries had been united was suddenly split in two, dividing families and severing trade routes.
        1. "Male citizens" were guaranteed American rights.
        2. Indians were described as "savage tribes."
      2. Territorial expansion gave a new stridency to ideas about racial superiority.
      3. Mexico had abolished slavery and declared persons of Spanish, Indian, and African origin equal before the law.
      4. The Texas constitution adopted after independence not only included protections for slavery but denied civil rights to Indians and persons of African origin.
    9. Gold-Rush California
      1. California's gold-rush population was incredibly diverse.
      2. The explosive population growth and fierce competition for gold worsened conflicts among California's many racial and ethnic groups.
      3. The boundaries of freedom in California were tightly drawn.
        1. Indians, Asians, and blacks were all prohibited basic rights.
        2. Thousands of Indian children, declared orphans, were bought and sold as slaves.
    10. Opening Japan
      1. The U.S. navy's commodore Matthew Perry sailed warships into Tokyo Harbor and demanded that Japan negotiate a trade treaty with the United States (1853-1854).
      2. Japan opened two ports to U.S. merchant ships in 1854.
      3. The United States was interested in Japan primarily as a refueling stop on the way to China.
  3. A Dose of Arsenic
    1. The Wilmot Proviso
      1. In 1846, Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a resolution prohibiting slavery from all territory acquired from Mexico.
      2. In 1848, opponents of slavery's expansion organized the Free Soil Party.
        1. The party nominated Martin Van Buren for president.
    2. The Free Soil Appeal
      1. The free soil position had a popular appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal government.
      2. The Free Soil platform of 1848 called for barring slavery from western territories and for the federal government providing homesteads to settlers without cost.
      3. Many southerners considered singling out slavery as the one form of property barred from the West to be an affront to them and their way of life.
      4. The admission of new free states would overturn the delicate political balance between the sections and make the South a permanent minority.
    3. Crisis and Compromise
      1. 1848 was a year of revolution in Europe, only to be suppressed by counterrevolution.
      2. With the slavery issue appearing more and more ominous, established party leaders moved to resolve differences between the sections.
      3. The Compromise of 1850 included:
        1. Admission of California as a free state
        2. Abolition of the slave trade (not slavery itself) in the District of Columbia
        3. Stronger Fugitive Slave law
        4. In the Mexican Cession territories, local white inhabitants would determine the status of slavery.
    4. The Great Debate
      1. Powerful leaders spoke for and against the Compromise:
        1. Daniel Webster (for the Compromise)
        2. John C. Calhoun (against the Compromise)
        3. William Seward (against the Compromise)
      2. President Taylor, Compromise opponent, died in office, and the new president, Millard Fillmore, secured the adoption of the Compromise.
    5. The Fugitive Slave Issue
      1. The Fugitive Slave Act allowed special federal commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives without benefit of a jury trial or even testimony by the accused individual.
      2. In a series of dramatic confrontations, fugitives, aided by abolitionist allies, violently resisted capture.
      3. The fugitive slave law also led several thousand northern blacks to flee to safety in Canada.
    6. Douglas and Popular Sovereignty
      1. Franklin Pierce won the 1852 presidential election.
      2. Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to establish territorial governments for Nebraska and Kansas so that a transcontinental railroad could be constructed.
        1. Slavery would be settled by popular sovereignty (territorial voters, not Congress, would decide).
    7. The Kansas-Nebraska Act
      1. Under the Missouri Compromise, slavery had been prohibited in the Kansas-Nebraska area.
      2. The Appeal of the Independent Democrats was issued by antislavery congressmen opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska bill because it would potentially open the area to slavery.
      3. The Kansas-Nebraska Act became law.
        1. Democrats were no longer unified as many northern Democrats opposed the bill.
        2. The Whig Party collapsed.
        3. The South became solidly Democratic.
        4. The Republican Party emerged to prevent the further expansion of slavery.
  4. The Rise of the Republican Party
    1. The Northern Economy
      1. The rise of the Republican Party reflected underlying economic and social changes.
        1. Railroad network
      2. By 1860, the North had become a complex, integrated economy.
      3. Two great areas of industrial production had arisen:
        1. Northeastern seaboard
        2. Great Lakes region
    2. The Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothings
      1. In 1854 the American, or Know-Nothing, Party emerged as a political party appealing to anti-Catholic and, in the North, antislavery sentiments.
    3. The Free Labor Ideology
      1. Republicans managed to convince most northerners (antislavery Democrats, Whigs, Free Soilers, and Know-Nothings) that the "slave power" posed a more immediate threat to their liberties.
        1. This appeal rested on the idea of free labor.
      2. Free labor could not compete with slave labor, and so slavery's expansion had to be halted to ensure freedom for the white laborer.
      3. Republicans as a whole were not abolitionists.
    4. "Bleeding Kansas" and the Election of 1856
      1. Bleeding Kansas seemed to discredit Douglas's policy of leaving the decision of slavery up to the local population-thus, aiding the Republicans.
        1. Civil war within Kansas
        2. Charles Sumner
      2. The election of 1856 demonstrated that parties had reoriented themselves along sectional lines.
  5. The Emergence of Lincoln
    1. The Dred Scott Decision
      1. After having lived in free territories, the slave Dred Scott sued for his freedom.
      2. The Supreme Court justices addressed three questions:
        1. Could a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court?
        2. Did residence in a free state make Scott free?
        3. Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?
      3. Speaking for the majority, Chief Justice Roger A. Taney declared that only white persons could be citizens of the United States.
      4. Taney ruled that Congress possessed no power under the Constitution to bar slavery from a territory, so Scott was still a slave.
        1. The decision in effect declared unconstitutional the Republican platform of restricting slavery's expansion.
      5. President Buchana wanted to admit Kansas as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution; Stephen Douglas attempted to block the attempt.
    2. Lincoln and Slavery
      1. In seeking reelection, Douglas faced an unexpectedly strong challenge from Abraham Lincoln.
      2. Lincoln's speeches combined the moral fervor of the abolitionists with the respect for order and the Constitution of more conservative northerners.
    3. The Lincoln-Douglas Campaign
      1. Lincoln campaigned against Douglas for Illinois's senate seat.
      2. The Lincoln-Douglas debates remain classics of American political oratory.
        1. To Lincoln, freedom meant opposition to slavery.
        2. Douglas argued that the essence of freedom lay in local self-government and individual self-determination.
        3. Douglas asserted at the Freeport debate that popular sovereignty was compatible with the Dred Scott decision.
      3. Lincoln shared many of the racial prejudices of his day.
      4. Douglas was reelected by a narrow margin.
    4. John Brown at Harpers Ferry
      1. An armed assault by the abolitionist John Brown on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, further heightened sectional tensions.
      2. Placed on trial for treason to the state of Virginia, Brown's execution turned him into a martyr to much of the North.
    5. The Rise of Southern Nationalism
      1. More and more southerners were speaking openly of southward expansion.
        1. Ostend Manifesto
        2. William Walker and filibustering
      2. By the late 1850s, southern leaders were bending every effort to strengthen the bonds of slavery.
    6. The Election of 1860
      1. The Democratic Party was split with its nomination of Douglas in 1860 and the southern Democrats' nomination of John Breckinridge.
      2. Republicans nominated Lincoln over William Seward.
        1. Lincoln appealed to many voters.
      3. The Republican party platform:
        1. Denied the validity of the Dred Scott decision
        2. Opposed slavery's expansion
        3. Added economic initiatives
      4. In effect, two presidential campaigns took place in 1860.
      5. The most striking thing about the election returns was their sectional character.
      6. Without a single vote in ten southern states, Lincoln was elected the nation's sixteenth president.
  6. The Impending Crisis
    1. The Secession Movement
      1. Rather than accept permanent minority status in a nation governed by their opponents, Deep South political leaders boldly struck for their region's independence.
      2. In the months that followed Lincoln's election, seven states, stretching from South Carolina to Texas, seceded from the Union.
    2. The Secession Crisis
      1. President Buchanan denied that a state could secede, but also insisted that the federal government had no right to use force against it.
      2. The Crittenden plan for sectional compromise was rejected by Lincoln because it allowed for the expansion of slavery.
      3. The Confederate States of America was formed before Lincoln's inauguration by the seven states that had seceded.
        1. Jefferson Davis as President
    3. And the War Came
      1. Lincoln also issued a veiled warning: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war."
      2. After the Confederates began the Civil War by firing on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection.
      3. Four Upper South states (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) seceded and joined the Confederacy rather than aid Lincoln in suppressing the rebellion.