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1 A New World
2 Beginnings of English America, 1607–1660
3 Creating Anglo-America, 1660–1750
4 Slavery, Freedom, and the Struggle for Empire, to 1763
5 The American Revolution, 1763–1783
6 The Revolution Within
7 Founding a Nation, 1783–1789
8 Securing the Republic, 1790–1815
9 The Market Revolution, 1800–1840
10 Democracy in America, 1815–1840
11 The Peculiar Institution
12 An Age of Reform, 1820–1840
13 A House Divided, 1840–1861
14 A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 1861–1865
15 “What Is Freedom?”: Reconstruction, 1865–1877
16 America’s Gilded Age, 1870–1890
17 Freedom’s Boundaries, at Home and Abroad, 1890–1900
18 The Progressive Era, 1900–1916
19 Safe for Democracy: The United States and World War I, 1916–1920
20 From Business Culture to Great Depression: The Twenties, 1920–1932
21 The New Deal, 1932–1940
22 Fighting for the Four Freedoms: World War II, 1941–1945
23 The United States and the Cold War, 1945–1953
24 An Affluent Society, 1953–1960
25 The Sixties, 1960–1968
26 The Triumph of Conservatism, 1969–1988
27 Globalization and Its Discontents, 1989–2000
28 September 11 and the Next American Century

Chapter 12: An Age of Reform, 1820–1840

Outline

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  1. The reform impulse
    1. Overall patterns
      1. Voluntary associations
      2. Wide-ranging targets and objectives
      3. Activities and tactics
      4. Breadth of appeal
    2. Utopian communities
      1. Overall patterns
        1. Varieties of structures and purposes
        2. Common visions
          1. Cooperative organization of society
          2. Social harmony
          3. Narrowing of gap between rich and poor
          4. Gender equality
      2. Spiritual communities
        1. Shakers
          1. Outlooks on gender and property
          2. Outcome
        2. Oneida
          1. John Humphrey Noyes
          2. Outlooks on gender and property
          3. Outcome
      3. Worldly communities
        1. Brook Farm
          1. Transcendentalist origins
          2. Influence of Charles Fourier
          3. Outlooks on labor and leisure
          4. Outcome
        2. New Harmony
          1. Communitarianism of Robert Owen
          2. Forerunner at New Lanark, Scotland
          3. Outlooks on labor, education, gender, and community
          4. Outcome
        3. Utopia and Modern Times
          1. Anarchism of Josiah Warren
          2. Outlooks on labor, exchange, and gender
          3. Outcome
      4. Limits of mainstream appeal
    3. Mainstream reform movements
      1. Visions of liberation
        1. From external "servitudes" (e.g. slavery, war)
        2. From internal "servitudes" (e.g. drink, illiteracy, crime)
      2. Influence of Second Great Awakening
      3. "Perfectionism"
      4. Appeal in "burnt-over districts"
      5. Radicalization of reform causes
      6. Badge of middle-class respectability
    4. Opposition to reform
      1. Leading sources
        1. Workers
        2. Catholics
        3. Immigrants
      2. Points of controversy
        1. Temperance crusade
        2. Perfectionism
        3. Imposition of middle-class Protestant morality
    5. Ambiguities of reform
      1. Impulse for liberation, individual freedom
      2. Impulse for moral order, social control
    6. Program of institution building
      1. Jails
      2. Poorhouses
      3. Asylums
      4. Orphanages
      5. Common schools
        1. Thomas Mann
        2. As embodiment of reform agenda
        3. Reception and outcome
  2. Crusade against slavery
    1. American Colonization Society
      1. Founding
      2. Principles
        1. Gradual abolition
        2. Removal of freed blacks to Africa
      3. Establishment of Liberia
      4. Skepticism over
      5. Following
        1. In North
        2. In South
      6. Black response
        1. Emigration to Liberia
        2. Opposition
          1. First black national convention
          2. Insistence on equal rights, as Americans
    2. Take-off of militant abolitionism
      1. Distinctive spirit and themes
        1. Demand for immediate abolition
        2. Explosive denunciations of slavery
          1. As a sin
          2. As incompatible with American freedom
        3. Rejection of colonization
        4. Insistence on racial equality, rights for blacks
        5. Active role of blacks in movement
        6. Mobilization of public opinion
        7. Moral suasion
      2. Initiatives and methods
        1. Founding of American Anti-Slavery Society (AAAS)
        2. Printed propaganda
        3. Oratory; public meetings
        4. Petitions
      3. Pioneering figures and publications
        1. David Walker; An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World
        2. William Lloyd Garrison
          1. The Liberator
          2. Thoughts on African Colonization
        3. Theodore Weld; Slavery As It Is
        4. Lydia Maria Child; An Appeal In Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans
      4. Spread and growth
      5. Strongholds of support
      6. Visions of American freedom
        1. Self-ownership as basis of freedom
        2. Priority of personal liberty over rights to property or local self-government
        3. Freedom as universal entitlement, regardless of race
        4. Right to bodily integrity
      7. Identification with revolutionary heritage
    3. Black and white abolitionism
      1. Prominence of blacks in movement
        1. As opponents of colonization
        2. As readers and supporters of The Liberator
        3. As members and officers of AAAS
        4. As organizers and speakers
        5. As writers
      2. Racial strains within movement
        1. Persistence of prejudice among white abolitionists
        2. White dominance of leadership positions
        3. Growing black quest for independent role
      3. Remarkable degree of egalitarianism among white abolitionists
        1. Anti-discrimination efforts in North
        2. Spirit of interracial solidarity
      4. Black abolitionists' distinctive stands on freedom and Americanness
        1. Exceptional hostility to racism
        2. Exceptional impatience with celebrations of American liberty; "Freedom celebrations"
        3. Exceptional commitment to color-blind citizenship
        4. Exceptional insistence on economic dimension to freedom
      5. Frederick Douglass's historic Fourth of July oration
    4. Slavery and civil liberties
      1. Assault on abolitionism
        1. Mob violence
          1. Attack on Garrison in Boston
          2. Attack on James G. Birney in Cincinnati
          3. Fatal attack on Elijah P. Lovejoy in Alton, Illinois
        2. Suppression
          1. Removal of literature from mails
          2. "Gag rule" on petitions to House of Representatives
      2. Resulting spread of antislavery sentiment in North
    5. Split within AAAS
      1. Points of conflict
        1. Role of women in movement
        2. Garrisonian radicalism
        3. Relationship of abolitionism to American politics
      2. Outcome
        1. Formation of rival American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society
        2. Founding of Liberty party
        3. Weak performance of Liberty party in 1840 election
  3. Origins of feminism
    1. Rise of the public woman
      1. Importance of women at grassroots of abolitionism
      2. Forms of involvement in public sphere
        1. Petition drives
        2. Meetings
        3. Parades
        4. Oratory
      3. Range of reform movements involving women
    2. Abolitionism as seedbed for feminist movement
      1. New awareness of women's subordination
      2. Path-breaking efforts of Angelina and Sarah Grimké
        1. Impassioned antislavery addresses
        2. Controversy over women lecturers
        3. Sarah Grimké's Letters on the Equality of the Sexes
    3. Launching of women's rights movement; Seneca Falls Convention
      1. Roots in abolitionism
        1. Influence of Grimké sisters
        2. Leadership of antislavery veterans Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
      2. Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
        1. Echoes of Declaration of Independence
        2. Demand for suffrage
        3. Denunciation of wide-ranging inequalities
    4. Characteristics of feminism
      1. International scope
      2. Middle-class orientation
    5. Themes of feminism
      1. Self-realization
        1. Transcendentalist sensibility
        2. Margaret Fuller's Woman in the Nineteenth Century
      2. Right to participate in market revolution
        1. Denial that home is women's "sphere"
        2. Amelia Bloomer's new style of dress
      3. Analogy between marriage and slavery; "slavery of sex"
        1. Laws governing wives' economic status
        2. Law of domestic relations
    6. Tensions within feminist thought
      1. Belief in equality of the sexes
      2. Belief in natural differences

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