Chapter 33

Chapter 33: Conflict And Deadlock: The Eisenhower Years

Chapter Outline

I. Eisenhower's rise to the presidency

  1. "Time for a change" from the Truman administration
  2. Republicans in 1952
  3. Democrats in 1952
  4. The election of 1952
    1. Eisenhower won landslide victory
    2. Victory for Republicans
      1. In South
      2. In New Deal coalition
    3. Except for presidency, Democrats fared well in 1952
  5. Eisenhower's career before 1952
  6. Eisenhower's leadership style

II. Eisenhower's "dynamic conservatism"

  1. Cutbacks in New Deal programs
  2. Endurance of the New Deal
    1. Extended the coverage of the Social Security Act
    2. Farm-related programs
    3. Public works
      1. St. Lawrence Seaway
      2. Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956

III. The Korean peace talks

  1. Continuing deadlock in early 1953
  2. Aerial bombardment and "secret" threats used to obtain agreement
  3. Negotiations moved quickly to armistice

IV. The end of McCarthyism

  1. McCarthy still strong after 1952
  2. Attack on the United States Army
  3. Televised hearings led to McCarthy's downfall
  4. Eisenhower's concern for internal security
    1. No clemency for the Rosenbergs
    2. Executive order allowed firing of "security risk" government workers
  5. The Warren Court and the Red Scare

V. Foreign policy in Eisenhower's first term

  1. John Foster Dulles and foreign policy
    1. Dulles's world view
    2. Dulles and containment
      1. Liberation
      2. No significant departure from containment
      3. "Massive retaliation"
      4. "Brinksmanship"
  2. Indochina
    1. European colonies in Asia
      1. Independence for British colonies
      2. Indonesian independence
      3. Ho Chi Minh's efforts for Indochinese independence
    2. First Indochina War
      1. Conflict between Ho and Bao Dai
      2. Increased American aid for French and Bao Dai
      3. French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
    3. The Geneva Accords
      1. Proposed to unify Vietnam after elections in 1956
      2. American response-the establishment of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
      3. U.S. backing for South Vietnam
    4. Rise of Ngo Dinh Diem
      1. Installed as Vietnamese premier by the French
      2. Diem's corrupt and oppressive regime
      3. Refused to sanction elections in 1956
      4. Vietcong begin attacks on Diem regime
  3. Red China
    1. Chinese began artillery shelling of Quemoy and Matsu
    2. Navy "leaked" word that the U.S. was considering destroying Red Chinese military strength
    3. Attacks ceased

VI. The election of 1956

VII. Foreign crises in the election year

  1. The Middle East
    1. Failure of the Middle East Treaty Organization
    2. Suez Canal
      1. Egyptian government ordered the British out of Egypt
      2. Israel, France, and Britain began military attacks on Egypt
      3. America sided with Nassar
  2. Communist repression in Hungary
    1. Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw Pact
    2. Russian troops forced Hungary back into the Communist fold and executed Imre Nagy

VIII. Sputnik

  1. Russia launched Sputnik I (October 1957)
  2. American responses
    1. Americans suddenly noted apparent "missile gap"
    2. Enlarged defense spending
    3. NASA's creation
    4. National Defense Education Act of 1958

IX. Problems abroad

  1. Lebanon
    1. The Eisenhower Doctrine
    2. Leftist coup in Iraq
    3. U.S. invades Lebanon
  2. Renewed confrontation between Chinese Communists and Nationalists
  3. Khrushchev's blustering over West Berlin
  4. The "U-2 summit"
    1. Russians shot down American U-2 spy plane
    2. Eisenhower's response
    3. Khrushchev left the summit meeting
  5. Cuba
    1. In his fight against the dictator Batista, Castro had American support
    2. Castro's movement toward dictatorship
    3. Eisenhower's reaction

X. Civil rights in the 1950s

  1. Eisenhower's ambiguous stance
  2. The Brown decision (1954)
    1. "'Separate but equal' has no place"
    2. Reactions
      1. Eisenhower's reluctance
      2. Token integration
      3. Massive resistance
  3. Montgomery bus boycott
    1. Rosa Parks arrested
    2. Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a bus boycott
    3. Federal courts ruled against "separate but equal"
    4. Southern Christian Leadership Conference formed
    5. Centrality of black churches in the civil rights movement
  4. Legislation
    1. Civil Rights Act of 1957
    2. Civil Rights Act of 1960
  5. Little Rock
    1. Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus prevented black students from registering for high school
    2. Eisenhower ordered military protection for students
    3. Faubus closed the high schools in Little Rock
    4. By 1960 massive resistance confined to Deep South

XI. Assessing Eisenhower's presidency

  1. Eisenhower's achievements and shortfalls
  2. The farewell address
Print This Page
Bookmark and Share

The Norton Gradebook

Instructors and students now have an easy way to track online quiz scores with the Norton Gradebook.

Go to the Norton Gradebook

Norton Ebooks

The ebook version America: A Narrative History, 8e offers the full content of the print version at half the price.

Norton Ebooks

Norton StudyApp

StudyApp provides the perfect mobile solution for studying any topic anywhere. Use the flashcard mode to review key terms and figures from each chapter. The quiz mode allows you to test your knowledge and share your scores with your friends on Facebook.