Chapter 31

Chapter 31: The Fair Deal And Containment

Chapter Outline

Demobilization under Truman

  1. Harry Truman
    1. Background and character
    2. Domestic proposals of 1945
  2. Demobilization
    1. Rapid reduction of armed forces
      1. By 1950, armed forces down to 600,000
      2. The baby-boom generation
    2. Demobilization did not bring depression
      1. Unemployment pay and other Social Security benefits
      2. Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
      3. Pent-up demand for consumer goods
      4. Rise in GNP
  3. The problem of inflation
    1. Demands for wage increases
    2. Strikes
      1. Steel Workers
      2. United Mine Workers
      3. Railroads
    3. Truman's response to strikes

Truman's early domestic policies

  1. Employment Act of 1946
    1. Dropped the Democratic party commitment to full employment
    2. Created the Council of Economic Advisors
  2. Congressional elections of 1946
    1. Discontent with Democrats
    2. Republicans won majorities in both houses of Congress
  3. Record of the Republican Congress
    1. Taft-Hartley Act
      1. Restrictions on labor
      2. Passed over Truman's veto
      3. Effect of act
    2. Truman vetoed tax cut
    3. National Security Act of 1947

The Cold War

  1. The United Nations
    1. Outline of the United Nations
    2. Ratification of the United Nations charter
  2. Results of war-crimes trials
  3. Conflicting Cold War interpretations
  4. Differences with the Soviets
    1. Problems in Eastern Europe
      1. Russian violations of the Yalta agreements
      2. Communist takeovers
    2. Postwar settlement treaties confirmed Soviet control of Eastern Europe
  5. Containment
    1. Formulated by George F. Kennan
    2. The Truman Doctrine
      1. Communist influence in Turkey and Greece
      2. Financial aid "to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation"
    3. The Marshall Plan
      1. War damage and dislocation in Europe invited Communist influence
      2. Economic aid to all European countries offered in the European recovery program
    4. Dividing Germany
      1. Merger of Allied zones
      2. Berlin blockade and airlift
      3. Creation of East and West Germany
    5. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
      1. Members
      2. Pledged signers to treat an attack against one as an attack against all
    6. Establishment of Israel

Domestic politics

  1. Civil rights in the 1940s
    1. Influences of WWII and Cold War on race relations
    2. Truman's change of heart on civil rights
    3. Truman desegregates the military
    4. Jackie Robinson
  2. Division of the Democratic party
    1. Southern conservatives upset over Truman's civil rights stand
    2. Democratic left upset at Truman's firing of Henry Wallace
    3. Efforts to shore up the New Deal coalition
  3. The 1948 election
    1. Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey
    2. Democrats nominated Truman and included a strong civil rights plank
      1. Southern conservatives formed the Dixiecrats and nominated J. Strom Thurmond
      2. The Progressive party nominated Henry Wallace
    3. Election results
      1. Truman won in major upset
      2. Split in Democratic party helped Truman
      3. Democratic majorities in Congress
      4. A vindication of the New Deal
    4. Fair Deal proposals
    5. Conservative coalition blocks most legislation

The Cold War heats up

  1. Truman's foreign policy
  2. China
    1. Nationalists vs. Communists
    2. Nationalists forced to Formosa (Taiwan)
    3. U.S. sought to shore up friendly Asian regimes
  3. Problems of the Atomic Age
    1. Russia detonated its first atomic bomb
    2. Truman ordered construction of the hydrogen bomb
    3. Call for buildup of conventional forces

The Korean War

  1. America's entry
    1. Korea from World War II to 1950
    2. North Korean forces invaded South Korea
    3. U. N. sanctioned aid to South Korea
    4. Truman ordered American military forces to Korea under U. N. auspices
  2. America in the Korean War
    1. Gen. Douglas MacArthur commanded U. N. forces
    2. Congress never voted a declaration of war
  3. Military developments
    1. Inchon and decision to invade the North
    2. Chinese Communists entered the war
  4. Dismissal of MacArthur
    1. Different views of the Korean War
    2. MacArthur openly criticized Truman
    3. MacArthur dismissed
    4. Public disfavor
  5. End of the war
    1. Snags in negotiations
    2. Truce signed
    3. Cost of the war

Another Red Scare

  1. Truman's loyalty program
  2. The Hiss case
    1. Whittaker Chambers, former Soviet agent, accused Hiss of passing secret documents
    2. Hiss convicted of perjury
  3. The Rosenbergs and atomic espionage
  4. Joseph McCarthy's witch-hunt
    1. Rise of McCarthy
    2. Assessment of McCarthy
  5. McCarran Internal Security Act
    1. Passed over Truman's veto
    2. Actual Communist espionage

Assessment of the Cold War

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