Chapter 28

Chapter 28: New Deal America

Chapter Outline

I. From Hooverism to FDR

  1. The parties in 1932
    1. Republicans
      1. Renominated Herbert Hoover
      2. Mood of defeat
    2. Democrats
      1. Nominated FDR
      2. FDR promised "a new deal for the American people"
  2. FDR's rise
    1. Early political career
    2. Platform
    3. Voters had confidence in FDR
  3. The election of 1932
  4. FDR takes office
    1. The long wait
      1. Four months until inauguration
      2. Depression's panic spread

II. The first Hundred Days

  1. Competeing solutions
    1. FDR's three-pronged strategy
      1. banking crisis
      2. industrial recovery
      3. raise commodity prices
  2. Strengthening America's finances
    1. The banking crisis
      1. FDR declared four-day banking holiday
      2. Emergency Banking Relief Act
      3. FDR's "fireside chats" assured banks' safety
      4. By March 15, banking crisis over
    2. Economy Act
    3. The end of Prohibition
    4. Fifteen major proposals of 1933
    5. The problem of debt
      1. Farm Credit Administration
      2. Emergency Farm Mortgage Act and Farm Credit Act
      3. Home Owners' Loan Corporation
    6. Banking and investment reforms
      1. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
      2. Federal Securities Act
    7. Devaluing the currency
  3. Relief Measures
    1. Civilian Conservation Corps
    2. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
    3. Civil Works Administration
    4. Works Progress Administration
      1. construction jobs
      2. artists and writers
      3. National Youth Administration
  4. Agricultural recovery through controlled production
    1. The Agricultural Adjustment Act
    2. Success of the programs
    3. The Dust Bowl
    4. Supreme Court, in United States v. Butler, ended AAA
    5. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
    6. Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
  5. Industrial recovery-the National Industrial Recovery Act
    1. Public Works Administration
    2. National Recovery Administration
    3. Codes of fair practice
    4. Criticism of the NRA
    5. NRA struck down by Supreme Court
    6. Legacy of the NRA
      1. Set new standards
      2. Spurred growth of unions
      3. Advanced trend of stabilization
  6. The Tennessee Valley Authority
    1. New objectives: overall regional planning
    2. inexpensive electricity

III. The social cost of Depression

  1. Continuing hardships
  2. Dust Bowl migrants
    1. From across the Southwest from Colorado to Oklahoma
    2. California ends up being no "paradise"
      1. One third of Okies return to home states
  3. Minorities and the New Deal
    1. Effects of farm programs on African-Americans
    2. Mexican Americans
    3. Native Americans
  4. Court decisions and black rights
    1. Grovey v. Townsend
    2. Powell v. Alabama
    3. Norris v. Alabama

IV. Culture in the thirties

  1. Writers and "social significance"
    1. John Steinbeck
    2. Richard Wright
  2. Popular culture during the Depression
    1. Radio
    2. Film

V. The Second New Deal

  1. Eleanor Roosevelt
  2. Public criticism
    1. Huey Long
    2. Francis Townsend
    3. Charles Coughlin
  3. The Supreme Court and the New Deal
    1. Struck down NIRA (Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States)
    2. Entire New Deal seemed in danger

VI. Legislative achievements

  1. National Labor Relations Act
  2. Social Security Act
    1. "Cornerstone" of the New Deal
    2. Relatively conservative with a regressive tax
  3. Revenue Act of 1935 (Wealth Tax Act)
    1. "Soaking" the rich makes FDR "traitor to his class"

VII. The election of 1936

  1. FDR's popularity
  2. Republicans nominated Alfred M. Landon
  3. Democrats create a new electoral coalition
  4. Landslide victory for FDR

VIII. FDR and the Supreme Court

  1. The Court's decisions seemed to endanger the New Deal
  2. FDR decided to enlarge the Court, to enable him to appoint pro-New Deal justices
  3. Court-packing scheme met with much opposition
  4. Court packing became unnecessary

IX. Labor in the New Deal

  1. Growth of unions
  2. Industrial unions
    1. Movement to organize workers in mass-production industries
    2. Craft unions in AFL opposed to industrial unions
    3. Formation of CIO
  3. The CIO
    1. Success in automobile industry
    2. Success in steel industry
    3. CIO had soon unionized much of industrial America

X. The slump of 1937

  1. Sharper than crash of 1929
  2. Reasons for slump
  3. Economic theories
    1. Less government spending and a balanced budget
    2. Renewed spending

XI. Economic policy and reform

  1. Recovering from the slump of 1937
  2. Wagner-Steagall Housing Act
  3. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act
  4. Other Acts
    1. Agricultural Adjustment Act
    2. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act
    3. Fair Labor Standards Act

XII. The legacy of the New Deal

  1. FDR and the Democratic party
    1. Southern Democrats drifted toward a coalition with conservative Republicans
      1. racism a key component in the shift
    2. The conservative opposition
    3. FDR's efforts to cleanse Democratic party
    4. In the election of 1938, the Democratic majorities in Congress began to slip
      1. Factions in Democratic party
      2. Growth of conservative opposition
  2. The Half Way Revolution
    1. Through the 1930s the power of the national government was vastly enlarged
    2. FDR had taken the road between the extremes of laissez-faire and socialism
Print This Page
Bookmark and Share

The Norton Gradebook

Instructors and students now have an easy way to track online quiz scores with the Norton Gradebook.

Go to the Norton Gradebook

Norton Ebooks

The ebook version America: A Narrative History, 8e offers the full content of the print version at half the price.

Norton Ebooks

Norton StudyApp

StudyApp provides the perfect mobile solution for studying any topic anywhere. Use the flashcard mode to review key terms and figures from each chapter. The quiz mode allows you to test your knowledge and share your scores with your friends on Facebook.