Chapter 23

Chapter 23: An American Empire

Chapter Outline

I. Toward the new imperialism

  1. Reasons for American expansion
    1. Markets
    2. Naval power
      1. Alfred Thayer Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power upon History
      2. Expansion of navy
    3. Racial thought
      1. Social Darwinism
      2. John Fiske's American Political Ideas
      3. Josiah Strong's Our Country
  2. William Seward and the purchase of Alaska
  3. Expansion in the Pacific
    1. Samoa
      1. Treaty of 1878
      2. After 1889, tripartite protectorate over Samoa
    2. Hawaii
      1. Boom in sugar production
      2. American influence in economy and government
      3. Queen Liliuokalani opposed Americans
      4. Americans rebel, proclaim Republic of Hawaii

II. The Spanish-American War

  1. "Cuba libre"
    1. Rebellion broke out in Cuba
    2. American view of Cuban revolt
      1. Similar to American Revolution
      2. "Butcher" Weyler
      3. Yellow journalism
    3. Cleveland refused to intervene
  2. Pressures for war
    1. McKinley elected on platform endorsing Cuban independence
    2. Spain offered Cuba autonomy in return for peace
    3. de Lôme letter
    4. Explosion of the Maine
    5. Spain authorized McKinley to dictate settlement
    6. U.S. actions
      1. Declared Cuba independent
      2. Teller Amendment: U.S. does not want Cuban territory
      3. Blockade of Cuba
    7. War with Spain (April 1898)
    8. Summary of reasons for war
  3. Campaigns
    1. Philippines
      1. George Dewey
      2. Captured Manila Bay
    2. Cuba
      1. Condition of armies
      2. Theodore Roosevelt and the "Rough Riders"
  4. End of war
    1. Terms of peace
      1. Spain gave up Cuba
      2. U.S. would acquire Puerto Rico
      3. The Philippines question
    2. Annexation of the Philippines
      1. Little desire for Philippines before war
      2. McKinley's reasons for annexation
      3. Other areas in Pacific annexed at this time
      4. Opposition to Treaty of Paris

III. The Phillipine-American War

  1. The cost for suppresion of Filipino nationalism
    1. Deaths and lost American benevolence
  2. Water torture
  3. Anti-imperialist thought

IV. Religion and empire

  1. American Protestant Christianity's support for war
    1. racial "superiority" and religion
    2. American anti-Catholicism

V. Organizing the new acquisitions

  1. Philippines
    1. Philippines Government Act: made Philippines an unorganized territory
    2. Jones Act set up elected legislature, affirmed U.S. intentions to grant independence
    3. Tydings-McDuffie Act offered independence in ten years
  2. Puerto Rico
    1. Foraker Act set up civil government
    2. Jones Act granted U.S. citizenship
  3. "Insular Cases": Constitution does not follow the flag
  4. Cuba
    1. Trouble with Cuban rebels
    2. Platt Amendment restricted Cuban independence
    3. Continued American intervention in Cuba

VI. Imperial rivalries in East Asia

  1. Imperial rivalries in China
  2. Open Door Policy (1899)
  3. The Boxer Rebellion (1900)
  4. Summary of America's China policy

VII. Roosevelt's "big stick" diplomacy

  1. TR's rise
    1. Early years
    2. Election of 1900
      1. W. J. Bryan against McKinley (and TR)
      2. Issues, especially imperialism
    3. McKinley assassinated
    4. TR's character
  2. Panama Canal
    1. Early treaties hindered canal efforts
    2. America moved for a canal
      1. Agreements and problems with Colombia
      2. Rebellion in Panama
    3. America built the canal
      1. Isthmian Canal Commission created
      2. Resentment in Colombia
  3. Roosevelt Corollary
    1. Economic crisis in Dominican Republic invited foreign intervention
    2. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    3. Specific actions in Dominican Republic
  4. Russo-Japanese War and aftermath
    1. Background
    2. TR sponsored peace settlement (Treaty of Portsmouth)
    3. Concern over Japanese strength near the Philippines
    4. Fear of "yellow peril" at home
      1. Discrimination against Japanese in California
      2. "Gentlemen's Agreement" restricted Japanese immigration
  5. Roosevelt mediated settlement in Morocco
  6. "Great White Fleet" showed off America's strength
  7. Roosevelt's foreign policy assessed
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