Chapter 21

Chapter 21: The Emergence Of Urban America

Chapter Outline

I. The American city in the late nineteenth century

  1. The growth of cities
    1. Urban growth in the West
    2. Technological innovations and growth
      1. Elevators allowed cities to grow vertically
      2. Streetcars and bridges allowed cities to grow horizontally
    3. The attractions and problems of the cities
      1. Jobs and entertainment, but cramped housing
    4. City politics
      1. Political machines
    5. Cities and the environment
      1. Water supplies impacted by animal and human waste

II. Immigration to America

  1. Immigrants a major force in the growth of cities
    1. Ethnic neighborhoods
    2. Reasons for coming to America
    3. Numbers of immigrants
  2. A new wave of immigration
    1. After 1890, most immigrants from southern and
    2. eastern Europe
    3. Difference in culture, language, and religion
  3. Ellis Island
  4. Immigrant life
    1. Working conditions
    2. Living conditions
  5. The nativist response
    1. New immigrants viewed as a threat
    2. The American Protective Association
    3. Immigration restriction
      1. Early laws excluded "undesirables"
      2. Chinese immigrants excluded in 1882

III. Popular culture

  1. Vaudeville
  2. Saloon culture
  3. Outdoor recreation
    1. Parks and other forms of urban recreation
  4. Working women and leisure
  5. Spectator sports
    1. Baseball

IV. Education and the professions

  1. Public education
    1. Increases in spending for schools
    2. Secondary schools
  2. Vocational Training
    1. Morrill Act (1862) and land grant colleges
  3. Higher education
    1. Increases in college attendance
    2. Women in higher education
    3. Graduate schools

V. Theories of social change

  1. Charles Darwin's Origin of Species (1859)
  2. Social Darwinism
    1. Herbert Spencer and "survival of the fittest."
    2. Social Darwinism in government and business
    3. William Graham Sumner
  3. Reform Darwinism
    1. A challenge to Social Darwinism
    2. Lester Frank Ward and his Dynamic Sociology

VI. Pragmatism

  1. William James and pragmatism
    1. The meaning and value of ideas is in their practical consequences
  2. John Dewey and "instrumentalism"
    1. Ideas as instruments
    2. Progressive education

VII. Realism in literature

  1. Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain)
    1. Local color and old folkways
  2. Literary naturalism
    1. Introduction of scientific determinism into literature
    2. Stephen Crane
    3. Jack London
    4. Theodore Dreiser

VIII. Social criticism in the late nineteenth century

  1. Henry George's Progress and Poverty
  2. Thorstein Veblen's The Theory of the Leisure Class

IX. The social gospel

  1. Rise of the Institutional Church
    1. YMCA
    2. Salvation Army
  2. Religious reformers
    1. Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch

X. The settlement house movement

  1. Mission of settlement houses
    1. Jane Addams's Hull House most famous

XI. Women's employment and activism

  1. Women in the work force
  2. Push for suffrage
  3. Split in the movement
    1. National Woman Suffrage Association promoted many feminist causes
    2. American Woman Suffrage Association promoted only women's suffrage
  4. National American Woman Suffrage Association
    1. Leadership
    2. Accomplishments
      1. Nine western states had full suffrage by 1912
      2. Fewer and later successes in East
    3. Other women's reform organizations

XII. Toward a welfare state

  1. Regulation of business by states
  2. The "due process of law" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
    1. "Person" read to include corporations
    2. Doctrine of "substantive due process"
    3. Cases arising from these
  3. "Liberty of contract" cases
  4. Tensions between laissez-faire doctrines and growing sense of reform
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