Chapter 20

Chapter 20: Big Business And Organized Labor

Chapter Outline

I. The rise of Big Business

  1. Overview of factors propelling growth
  2. Second Industrial Revolution
    1. Spurred by innovation and invention
      1. transportation and communication networks
      2. electricity
      3. application of scientific research to industry

II. The railroads

  1. Growth of railroads
  2. The transcontinental railroads
    1. Pacific Railway Act (1862) authorized transcontinental line on north-central route
      1. Union Pacific Railroad
      2. Central Pacific Railroad
    2. Chinese labor
    3. First transcontinental railroad completed at Promontory Point, 1869
    4. Other transcontinental railroads
  3. Financing the railroads
    1. Role of the federal government
      1. federal land grants and cash make roads possible
    2. Role of the robber barons
      1. Crédit Mobilier
      2. Jay Gould
      3. Cornelius Vanderbilt

III. Manufacturing and inventions

  1. The growth of new industries and the transformation of old ones
  2. Two technological advances involving electricity
    1. Alexander Graham Bell and the telephone, 1876
    2. Thomas Alva Edison and the electric light, 1879

IV. Entrepreneurs

  1. John
  2. Rockefeller
    1. The Pennsylvania oil rush of 1859
    2. Rockefeller as oil refiner
    3. Growth of Standard Oil
    4. Rockefeller's organization of Standard Oil
  3. Andrew Carnegie
    1. Early ventures
    2. Carnegie and steel
    3. "The Gospel of Wealth"
  4. J. Pierpont Morgan
    1. Morgan and investment banking
    2. Morgan and railroads
    3. Morgan and U.S. Steel
  5. Sears and Roebuck
    1. Problem of distribution solved by mail order
    2. Opens truly national markets

V. Labor conditions and organization

  1. Social trends
    1. Continued inequalities
    2. Upward social mobility
  2. Working conditions
    1. Wages earned and hours worked
    2. Poor safety and health conditions in factories
  3. The change from personal working conditions to impersonal, contractual relationships
  4. Child labor
    1. Southern and New England textile mills

VI. Early worker protest

  1. Reasons for the slow growth of unions
  2. The Molly Maguires
  3. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
    1. Reduction of wages was immediate cause
    2. The strikes spread across the country
    3. Failure of the strikes
  4. The Sand-lot incident
    1. Kearney and the Workingmen's party of California push for Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882

VII. The rise of unions

  1. Unions in the 1850s and 1860s
  2. The National Labor Union
    1. The first federation of unions
    2. Limitations and achievements

VIII. The Knights of Labor

  1. Founded in 1869 by Uriah S. Stephens
  2. Success under Terrence V. Powderly
    1. Growth in membership
  3. Decline of the Knights of Labor
    1. Anarchism
    2. The Haymarket Affair
      1. Riot in Haymarket Square
      2. Trial and sentencing of anarchists
      3. Effects on Knights of Labor
  4. Achievements of Knights of Labor
    1. Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics
    2. Foran Act
    3. creation of the idea of industrial unions

IX. The American Federation of Labor

  1. Structure of the AFL
    1. Craft unions
  2. Samuel Gompers
    1. Concern for concrete economic gains
    2. Gompers's leadership in the AFL
  3. Membership growth in the AFL

X. Two strikes that hurt the union movement

  1. The Homestead Steel Strike of 1892
    1. Reasons for the strike
    2. Battle between strikers and Pinkerton detectives
    3. Strike failed, union dead at Homestead
  2. The Pullman Strike of 1894
    1. Workers forced to live in town of Pullman
    2. Workers turned to Eugene Debs and the American Railway Union
    3. Strike tied up most midwestern railroads
    4. Mail cars attached to Pullman cars
    5. Debs jailed and the union called off the strike
  3. Mary "Mother Jones" Harris

XI. Socialism and the unions

  1. Daniel DeLeon and the Socialist Labor party
  2. Eugene Debs and the Social Democrat party
  3. The Socialist party of America
    1. Debs in the presidential elections of 1904 and 1912
    2. Successes of the party
    3. Decline of the party

XII. The Industrial Workers of the World

  1. Origins of the IWW: western mining and lumber camps
  2. Goals of the IWW
    1. To include all workers, skilled and unskilled
    2. To replace the state with one big union
  3. Decline of the IWW
    1. Disputes within the group
    2. William
    3. "Big Bill" Haywood
Print This Page
Bookmark and Share

The Norton Gradebook

Instructors and students now have an easy way to track online quiz scores with the Norton Gradebook.

Go to the Norton Gradebook

Norton Ebooks

The ebook version America: A Narrative History, 8e offers the full content of the print version at half the price.

Norton Ebooks

Norton StudyApp

StudyApp provides the perfect mobile solution for studying any topic anywhere. Use the flashcard mode to review key terms and figures from each chapter. The quiz mode allows you to test your knowledge and share your scores with your friends on Facebook.