Chapter 19

Chapter 19: New Frontiers: South And West

Chapter Outline

I. Prophets and goals of the New South

  1. Henry Grady of the Atlanta Constitution
  2. The New South "gospel"
    1. Industrial development
    2. Agricultural variety other than cotton
    3. Economic diversity leads to real democracy

II. Economic growth in the New South

  1. Textile mills
  2. Tobacco
    1. The Dukes and the American Tobacco Company
  3. Coal and iron ore
  4. Lumber
  5. Miscellaneous industries

III. Agriculture in the New South

  1. Problems in southern agriculture
    1. Land ownership rare
        1. Sharecropping
        2. Tenant farming
      1. Small landholders use the crop-lien system
      2. Credit and markets tied to cash crop of cotton

IV. Tenancy and the environment

  1. Staple crops and mobile farmers lead to lack of sustainability
    1. Nutrients leached from soils
    2. Fertilizers exacerbate the problem
    3. Eventual erosion leads to "ravaged" lands

V. The political leaders of the New South

  1. Definition and evaluation of the term "Bourbon"
  2. Bourbon ideology
    1. Allied politically with eastern conservatives
    2. Allied economically with eastern capitalists
  3. Effects of Bourbon retrenchment
    1. Greatly reduced spending on education
    2. Convict leasing
    3. Repudiation of state debts
  4. Achievements of the Bourbons
    1. Agricultural
    2. Educational
  5. Flexibility in Bourbon race relations
    1. 1.Black voting and political involvement prevalent enough to disarm contemporary Bourbon critics

VI. African Americans and the New South

  1. Education
    1. Whites threatened by black gains encourage Jim Crow
  2. Black disenfranchisement
    1. Populism divides white southern vote so that the black vote became the "balance of power"
      1. leads to poll taxes and literacy tests
    2. The Mississippi plan
      1. Residence requirement
      2. Disqualification for conviction of certain
      3. Poll tax and other taxes
      4. Literacy test (with understanding clause)
    3. Variations of the Mississippi plan (including the "grandfather clause")
    4. Democratic primaries
  3. Segregation in the South
    1. Southern states passed Jim Crow legislation for "separate but equal"
    2. The Supreme Court
      1. The Civil Rights Cases (1883)
      2. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  4. Lynchings of blacks
    1. Black response to racism and statutory segregation
      1. Accommodation
      2. Create independent culture and institutions
    2. Irony of segregation
      1. Economic opportunities
      2. Rise of black activism
  5. African American leaders
    1. Ida B. Wells and the founding of the NAACP (1909)
    2. Booker T. Washington and accommodation
    3. W. E. B. Du Bois and protest of the "Atlanta Compromise"

VII. "Colonization" of the New West

  1. Emigrants to the West
    1. Mexicans, Canadians, Germans, Scandinavians, Irish, and others
    2. Exodusters, or African Americans from the South
      1. Benjamin Singleton
      2. The Exoduster experience
    3. Buffalo soldiers

VIII. The miner in the West

  1. The development of mining communities
  2. The great gold, silver, and copper strikes
  3. Western states admitted to the Union

IX. Mining and the environment

  1. Individual placer mining gives way to industrial corporate mining
    1. hydraulic, draft, and shaft mining transform landscapes and pollute streams
      1. First major environmental lawsuit, Woodruff v. North Bloomfield Gravel Mining Co.,

X. Native Americans in the West

  1. Emigrant and Indian conflict
    1. Ft. Laramie meeting, 1851
    2. The Sand Creek Massacre, 1864
  2. "Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes," 1867
    1. Decision to place Indians on reservations
  3. George Custer and the Battle of the Little Bighorn, 1876
  4. Continued Native American resistance
    1. Chief Joseph, 1877
    2. Geronimo and the Apache, 1886
    3. The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee, 1890
  5. Demise of the buffalo
    1. Environmental factors
  6. Reform of Indian policy
    1. Helen Hunt Jackson
    2. The Dawes Severalty Act
      1. Goal of the Dawes Act
      2. Effect of the Dawes Act

XI. Cowboys in the West

  1. Early cattle raising in the West
    1. Joseph McCoy and Abilene
    2. The role of railroad refrigeration
    3. The decline of the long drives
      1. Joseph Glidden and barbed wire
  2. The open-range cattle industry
    1. impacts of severe winters and long draughts
  3. Range wars

XII. Farmers in the West

  1. The problem of aridity
    1. Homestead Act of 1862 designed for smaller, wetter farms
    2. The Newlands Reclamation Act of 1901
  2. Technological advances that aided farmers
    1. Railroads
    2. Iron "sodbuster" plow
  3. Pioneer women

XIII. The end of the frontier

  1. Census of 1890 claimed that the frontier no longer existed
  2. Frederick Jackson Turner and "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," 1893
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