Chapter 18

Chapter 18: Reconstruction: North And South

Chapter Outline

America after the Civil War

  1. Effects of the war on the nation as a whole
  2. Republican legislation
    1. Morrill Tariff
    2. National Banking Act
    3. Subsidies for north-central transcontinental railroad
    4. Homestead Act of 1862
    5. Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
  3. Wartime devastation of the South
    1. Much private and public property destroyed
    2. Confederate currency and bonds worthless
    3. $4 billion invested in labor-the slaves-wiped out
    4. Problems of postwar agriculture
  4. A transformed South
  5. Special problems of the freedmen
    1. Though free, the former slaves had little with which to make a living
    2. The Freedmen's Bureau

Lincoln and Reconstruction

  1. Lincoln's lenient 10 percent plan
  2. Loyal governments appeared in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana, but were not recognized by Congress
  3. Arguments by Lincoln and Congress for authority over Reconstruction
  4. The stricter Wade-Davis bill
  5. Lincoln's philosophy of Reconstruction
  6. Lincoln's assassination

Johnson's plan for Reconstruction

  1. Johnson's philosophy of Reconstruction
  2. Johnson's plan
    1. Exclusion from pardon of those owning property worth over $20,000
    2. States must invalidate secession ordinances, abolish slavery, and repudiate Confederate debt
  3. Most southern states met all of Johnson's requirements

Congress, in December 1865, refused to seat senators and congressmen from the southern states

  1. Southern states had elected to Congress many ex-Confederate leaders
  2. Southern states had passed repressive Black Codes

The critical year of 1866: Radical Republicans gain power

  1. Faced with southern intransigence, moderate Republicans drifted toward the Radicals
  2. The Radicals: who they were and how they planned to reconstruct the South
    1. Conquered provinces
    2. Forfeited rights
  3. Johnson began to lose battle with Congress
    1. Johnson's veto of bill to extend life of Freedmen's Bureau upheld by Senate
    2. Johnson's veto of Civil Rights Acts of 1866 overridden
    3. Johnson's veto of revised Freedmen's Bureau bill overridden
    4. Congress passed Fourteenth Amendment
      1. Contents
      2. Responses
  4. Johnson lost support of the American public
    1. Unsuccessful speaking tour of Midwest
    2. In election of 1866, Republicans won over two-thirds majority in each house

Congressional Reconstruction

  1. Congress moved to protect its program from President Johnson
    1. Command of the Army Act
    2. Tenure of Office Act
  2. Military Reconstruction Act
  3. Second and Third Reconstruction Acts
  4. Congress protected its program from Supreme Court

Impeachment and trial of Johnson

  1. Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton in violation of Tenure of Office Act
  2. House of Representatives passed eleven articles of impeachment
  3. In Senate trial, vote to convict was one short
  4. Effects on Radicals and Johnson

Republican rule in the South

  1. New governments established in southern states
  2. The work of the Union League
  3. Blacks in the Reconstructed South
    1. Effects of military service
    2. Separate churches
    3. Black families
    4. Black schools
  4. Blacks in politics
    1. Introduced suddenly to politics, many rose to high positions
    2. Black influence in Reconstruction governments has been greatly exaggerated
  5. White Republicans in the South
    1. Carpetbaggers-northern Republicans who allegedly came south for political and economic gain
    2. Scalawags-southern white Republicans
  6. The Republican record
    1. Achievements of Republican governments
    2. Corruption of Republican governments

Religion and Reconstruction

  1. Christians for racial justice
  2. "Apostles of forgiveness"
  3. Differing religious perspectives of black and white southerners

Grant administration

  1. Positions of Democratic and Republican parties and the election of 1868
  2. Grant, an inept political leader, made many unwise appointments
  3. The problem of the government's debt
    1. Support for monetary expansion
    2. Support for monetary restriction
    3. Treasury began withdrawing greenbacks from circulation
  4. Scandals in Grant's administration
    1. Jay Gould and Jim Fisk tried to corner the gold market
    2. The Crédit Mobilier scandal
    3. Other scandals disclosed

Further challenges to the Grant administration

  1. Formation of Ku Klux Klan
  2. Activities of Klan and similar anti-black, anti-Republican groups
  3. Prosecution under new federal laws ended most of these activities
  4. Republican reformers and the election of 1872
  5. Conservative resurgence
    1. Ku Klux Klan weakened black and Republican morale
    2. North was also concerned with westward expansion, Indian wars, and the economic and political questions of the tariff and currency in 1869
    3. By 1876, Radical regimes survived only in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina
  6. Economic distress and the beginning of the Panic of 1873
  7. The Specie Resumption Act of 1875

The election of 1876

  1. Campaigns marked by few real issues and much mudslinging
  2. Disputed vote count in three southern states
  3. Congress formed special Electoral Commission to resolve problem
  4. The Compromise of 1877
  5. Some promises kept and many broken after Hayes took office
  6. The legacy of Reconstruction
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