Chapter 17

Chapter 17: The War Of The Union

Chapter Outline

The end of the interim period

  1. Lincoln's post-election policy hints
  2. The inauguration
  3. Presidential appointments
  4. The conflict begins
    1. Resupply of Fort Sumter
    2. The South's violent response
    3. Anderson's surrender
  5. Lincoln's initial steps of war
    1. Call for 75,000 militiamen
    2. Blockade of southern ports
  6. Secession of the upper South
    1. Departure of Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
    2. Eventual creation of West Virginia
  7. Other slave states remain in the Union
    1. Suspension of habeas corpus to hold Maryland
    2. Divided Kentucky
    3. The battle for Missouri

The personal agonies of war

  1. Lee's decision to join the Confederacy
  2. Pro-Union sentiment in the South

Balance of force

  1. The North's advantages
    1. Population
    2. Industry
    3. Transportation
  2. The South's advantages
    1. Defensive position
    2. Strong military leaders
  3. Sea power, an important advantage for the North

The first battle

  1. First Battle of Bull Run
    1. Basis for confrontation
    2. U.S. Army retreat
    3. Impact of battle
  2. The war's early phase
    1. Northern and southern strategies
    2. Naval actions
      1. Ironclad ships
      2. Union seizures along the southern coasts

Effort to build armies

  1. Initial Union recruits
  2. Confederate army recruitment
    1. Adoption of conscription
    2. Loopholes in Confederate conscription
  3. Union conscription
    1. Exemptions
    2. New York City draft riots

Confederate diplomacy

  1. Early hopes of recognition
  2. The Mason and Slidell episode
  3. Confederate raiding ships

The war in 1862

  1. The West in the Civil War
    1. Continued Western settlement
    2. The Kansas-Missouri border troubles
    3. Indians take sides
  2. Actions in the West
    1. Grant's move against Forts Donelson and Henry
    2. Battle of Shiloh
  3. McClellan's peninsular campaign
    1. McClellan's character
    2. His advance on Richmond
    3. Jackson's Shenandoah campaign
    4. Lee's attack on McClellan
    5. Appointment of Halleck as general-in-chief
  4. Second Battle of Bull Run
  5. Lee's invasion at Antietam
    1. McClellan acquires Lee's battle plans
    2. The war's bloodiest day
    3. McClellan replaced by Burnside
  6. Battle of Fredericksburg
  7. Assessment of the war at the end of 1862

Emancipation

  1. The move for emancipation
    1. Lincoln's considerations
    2. Military use of "contrabands"
    3. Lincoln's proposal for compensated emancipation
    4. Congressional actions against slavery
    5. Arguments for emancipation
    6. The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
    7. Emancipation goes into effect
    8. Reactions to emancipation
  2. Blacks in the military
    1. The 54th Massachusetts Regiment
    2. Overall black contribution to Union cause
  3. The 13th Amendment

Women and the war

  1. Traditional restraints on women loosened
    1. Nurses
    2. Thrust into new roles
  2. War took toll on families

The war and religion

  1. Clergymen as war advocates
  2. Public religious expression such as days of prayer and fasting
  3. Chaplains and camp revivals
  4. African American faith and the war
  5. Whose side is God on?

The revolutionary impact of the war

  1. Power shift to the North politically
  2. Measures passed by Congress

Financing the war

  1. Methods used in the North
    1. Increased tariff and excise taxes
    2. Income tax
    3. Issuance of greenbacks
    4. Bonds
    5. Some earn quick fortunes
  2. Confederate finances
    1. Direct taxes on property
    2. Additional taxes after 1863
    3. Bond issues and paper money
    4. Rampant inflation

Union politics

  1. Pressure of the Radicals
  2. Actions of the Democrats
  3. Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus
    1. Constitutional issues
    2. Arrests
    3. Vallandigham case
  4. Democratic campaign of 1864
  5. Election results

Confederate politics

  1. Status of politics in the Confederate system
  2. Problems of states' rights in the Confederacy
  3. Davis's leadership shortcomings

The Civil War and the environment

Wearing down the Confederacy

  1. Appointment of Joseph E. Hooker to lead the North
  2. Battle of Chancellorsville (a Confederate victory)
  3. Grant's successful assault on Vicksburg
  4. Lee again moves north
    1. Lee's objectives
    2. Convergence at Gettysburg
    3. Pickett's climactic attack
    4. Lee's retreat
    5. The Gettysburg Address
  5. Union victory at Chattanooga

Defeat of the Confederacy

  1. Grant and Sherman to pursue the war
  2. The Wilderness campaign
    1. Grant's strategy
    2. Siege of Petersburg
  3. Sherman's march through the South
    1. Sherman's pursuit of Johnston
    2. Davis replaced Johnston with John B. Hood
    3. Armies move in opposite directions
    4. Hood's army destroyed at Franklin and Nashville
    5. Sherman's destruction of Georgia
    6. Sherman moves into South Carolina
  4. Lincoln's second inaugural address
  5. Lee's effort to escape the Petersburg siege
  6. Surrender at Appomattox (April 9, 1865, Palm Sunday)
  7. Other Confederate forces surrender
  8. The Civil War as the first modern war

Why the North won

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