Chapter 14

Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny

Chapter Outline

I. The Tyler years

  1. Harrison’s brief term
  2. Tyler’s position on issues
  3. Domestic affairs
    1. Failure of Clay’s program
    2. Tyler left without a party
  4. Foreign affairs
    1. Problems with Britain needing solution
      1. Suppression of African slave trade
    2. Compromises of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty
      1. Canada-U.S. borders settled
      2. Joint patrols of Africa

II. The Westward frontier

  1. The idea of “manifest destiny”
    1. John L. O’Sullivan
  2. The western Indians
    1. Plains Indians
    2. Pressures from white expansion
  3. The Spanish West
    1. American attitudes toward area
    2. Spanish colonization not successful in Texas
  4. The Mexican Revolution
    1. Movements for independence
    2. Opened area for American expansion
  5. E. Fur trappers in the Rockies
  6. Move to Oregon country
    1. Joint occupation with Britain
    2. Mass migration of Americans by 1843
  7. Eyeing California
    1. Beginnings of Spanish settlement
    2. Franciscan missions
      1. Objectives
      2. Results
    3. The rancheros
    4. Ship trading with the area
    5. Sutter’s colony
  8. Movement to Santa Fe
  9. Life on the overland trail
    1. Statistics
    2. Indians rarely attacked
    3. Difficulties
    4. Gender roles
    5. Great Plains ecology
    6. 6. The Donner party
  10. Frémont’s mapping activities
  11. Efforts to acquire California

III. Annexing Texas

  1. American settlements
    1. Role of Stephen F. Austin
    2. Mexican edict against immigration
  2. Independence for Texas
    1. Anglo demands
    2. Santa Anna’s actions
    3. Rebellion
  3. War for Texas independence
    1. Battle of the Alamo
    2. Independence declared
    3. Role of Sam Houston
    4. Battle of San Jacinto
  4. The Republic of Texas
    1. President Sam Houston
    2. Efforts for annexation
      1. Jackson’s delayed recognition
      2. Calhoun’s treaty rejected

IV. The election of 1844

  1. Desire to keep the Texas issue out of the campaign
  2. Clay’s evasion on Texas
  3. Democrats nominate a dark horse—James K. Polk
  4. Polk’s victory

V. Polk’s presidency

  1. Polk’s background
  2. Polk’s program
  3. Annexation of Texas by Tyler
  4. Oregon demands
    1. British hesitancy about war
    2. Compromise treaty

VI. Mexican War

  1. Negotiations with Mexico
  2. Provocation of an attack
  3. The request for war
  4. Opposition to the war
    1. In various parts of the country
    2. In New England
  5. E. Preparation for war
    1. Troops compared
    2. Comparisons of other factors
    3. Selection of a commander
  6. Taylor’s conquest of northern Mexico
  7. Annexation of California
    1. Frémont’s efforts
    2. Bear Flag Republic
    3. Stockton’s claim of governorship
    4. Kearny’s move to California
  8. Taylor’s battles
    1. Victory at Monterrey
    2. Polk’s assumptions and suspicions
    3. Santa Anna’s return to power
    4. Battle of Buena Vista
    5. Taylor granted leave and returns home
  9. Scott’s move to Mexico City
    1. Amphibious attack on Veracruz
    2. Troop reinforcements
    3. Attack on Mexico City
  10. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    1. Terms of the treaty
    2. Ratification
  11. The war’s legacy
    1. Gains and losses
    2. Innovations
    3. Debate over slavery
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