Chapter 12

Chapter 12: The Dynamics Of Growth

Chapter Outline

Agriculture and the national economy

  1. The importance of cotton to the economy
    1. Invention of the cotton gin
    2. Revolutionary impact of the gin
    1. Impact on slavery
    2. Encouragement of westward migration
    3. Cotton became an important export
  • The westward movement
    1. Changes in land laws
      1. Land law of 1820
      2. Preemption Act of 1830
      3. Graduation Act of 1854
    2. Development of improved iron plows
    3. Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper

    Transportation and the national economy

    1. Opening new roads
    2. Water transport
      1. Steamboats
      2. Flatboats
      3. The Erie Canal
  • Development of railroads
    1. Early rail lines
    2. Advantages of rail service
  • Clipper ships
  • Financing internal improvements
    1. State and private funding of railroads
    2. Federal land grants to railroads
  • Communications revolution
    1. Impact of new modes of transportation
    2. Delivery of mail
  • Advances in technology
    1. Emphasis on practical application of science in the United States
    2. Examples of the impact of inventions
    3. First telegraph transmitted in 1844
  • Transportation and communications advances transform the nation
  • Industrialization

    1. The growth of industry
      1. Britain's lead in industrial production
      2. Samuel Slater's mill
      3. Impact of War of 1812 on early textile manufacturing
    2. Emergence of the factory system
      1. The Lowell system
        1. Raw material to production of finished cloth
        2. Use of young women
        3. Failure of Lowell idea
      2. Labor unrest in textile industry
      3. Rhode Island or Fall River system
    3. Industrialization and the environment

    Urbanization

    1. Leading cities of the antebellum period
    2. Interaction of manufacturing with urbanization

    Popular culture

    1. Urban recreation
      1. Colonial amusements
      2. Alcohol consumption
      3. Taverns as social centers
      4. Popularity of blood sports
      5. Performing arts
        1. Theater
        2. Minstrel shows

    Immigration

    1. Continuing need for labor
    2. Ebb and flow of immigration
    3. Characteristics of ethnic groups
      1. Irish
        1. Reasons for immigration
        2. Irish immigrant life
        3. Led to growth of Catholic Church
      2. Germans
      3. British
      4. Scandinavians
      5. Chinese
    4. Nativist reaction to immigrants
      1. Reasons for antagonism toward immigrants
      2. Examples of nativist activity
      3. Nativist organizations
        1. Early associations
        2. Know-Nothing party formed in 1854
        3. (1) Political gains
        4. (2) Specific demands

    Labor organization

    1. Daily life of the skilled urban working class
    2. Importance of Commonwealth v. Hunt decision, 1842
    3. Efforts to create national trade unions
    4. Urban labor politics
      1. Working Men's parties
      2. Locofocos in New York
      3. Impact of labor parties
    5. Continuing activities of unions

    The rise of professions

    1. Growing sophistication of American life
    2. Growth of professions
      1. Teaching
      2. Law
      3. Medicine
      4. Engineering
    3. Changing role of women

    Jacksonian inequality

    1. Examples of self-made men
    2. Distribution of wealth
    3. Growing inequality-possible reasons
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