Chapter 6

Chapter 6: The American Revolution

Chapter Outline

1776: Washington's narrow escape

  1. Howe assembled largest British army ever
  2. American defeat on Long Island
  3. Thomas Paine's The American Crisis
  4. Washington's attack on Trenton, Christmas 1776
  5. Washington's second minor success at Princeton
  6. Washington wintered in Morristown, N.J.

American society at war

  1. Division of support in the colonies
    1. Three groups: Patriots, Tories, and an indifferent middle group
    2. Who were the Tories?
    3. British and Tory frustrations
    4. Patriot groups materialized when troops were needed, then vanished
  2. Analysis of the colonial war effort
    1. The militia
    2. The Continental army
    3. Supplies obtained directly from farmers
    4. Difficulties of financing the war
    5. Washington orders mass inoculation at Morristown

Setbacks for the British

  1. Problems of the British war effort
  2. Three-pronged attack in New York led to turning point of the war
    1. Howe took Philadelphia
    2. Washington retired to Valley Forge for the winter
    3. Burgoyne moved south in New York
    4. Battle of Saratoga
  3. Saratoga escalated war to worldwide proportions
    1. French entered war to help Americans
    2. Spain entered as ally of France
    3. Britain declares war on the Dutch

Both sides regroup

  1. War in the East in 1778
    1. Clinton replaced Howe
    2. Winter at Valley Forge
      1. Sufferings of the troops
      2. Contributions of von Steuben and Lafayette
      3. A renewed army
    3. Stalemate
  2. Western successes of colonials
    1. George Rogers Clark in Illinois
    2. Iroquois power broken
    3. Daniel Boone in Kentucky
    4. Later effects of battles with frontier Indians

Southern campaign

  1. Reasons for the move south
  2. Reasons for lack of British success in the South
  3. Savannah and Charleston captured by the British
  4. Cornwallis routed Gates's forces at Camden, S.C.
  5. Tarleton and Ferguson defeated at Kings Mountain
  6. Greene placed in command of colonials in the South
  7. Morgan's victory at Cowpens
  8. Cornwallis fights his way northward
  9. Benedict Arnold's contributions to the British
  10. Exploits of the American navy
  11. Cornwallis defeated at Yorktown
    1. Nature of the Yorktown campaign
    2. Results and their significance

Peace negotiations

  1. Negotiators
  2. Nature of the problems with France and with Spain
  3. American initiatives with Britain
  4. Terms of the Peace of Paris, September 3, 1783

The Political Revolution

  1. Nature of the revolutionary concepts developed in America
    1. Nature of republican governmental ideas
    2. The necessity of a virtuous citizenry
  2. Changes in state governments
    1. Concept of written constitutions
    2. Features of new state constitutions
  3. Articles of Confederation
    1. Difficulties in obtaining ratification
    2. Powers of central government under the Articles

The Social Revolution

  1. Impact of independence on lower socioeconomic groups
  2. Impact of the Revolution on land tenure
  3. Impact of the Revolution on slavery
  4. Impact of the Revolution on women
  5. Impact of the Revolution on Indians
  6. Impact of the Revolution on religion

Emergence of an American culture

  1. Independence Day
  2. General impact of nationalism---America's special destiny
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