Chapter 4

Chapter 4: The Imperial Perspective

Chapter Outline

British agencies of colonial policy

  1. Overall policy not coherent or efficient, generally lax
  2. Role of the king
  3. Colonial consolidation by the Restoration government
    1. Navigation Act of 1651
    2. Theory of mercantilism
    3. Navigation Acts of the Restoration
    4. Lords of Trade created by Charles II
    5. Customs collections tightened
    6. Creation of Dominion of New England
  4. Impact of the Glorious Revolution in America
    1. Dominion of New England broken up
    2. Appointments of governors in MA, NY, and MD
    3. Influence of John Locke
    4. Refinement of the Navigation Acts
    5. Creation of the Board of Trade
  5. Period of salutary neglect

Governments in the colonies

  1. Lack of a coherent plan
  2. Role of the governor
    1. Method of selection in different colonies
    2. Veto power
    3. Other authority
  3. Role of the assemblies
    1. Voting qualifications
    2. Qualifications for assembly membership
    3. Two key powers: to approve taxes; to initiate legislation
    4. Assemblies gain in influence and power

Spain and France in America

  1. Spanish decline
    1. Reasons
    2. Spanish-Indian relations
  2. New France
    1. Distinguishing traits of French settlements
    2. Beginnings in Quebec
    3. Jesuit missionary efforts
    4. Exploration and settlement to the south
      1. La Salle's achievement
      2. Founding of New Orleans
    5. French settlements by 1750

The colonial wars

  1. Nature of the wars
    1. France vs. England in four European and intercolonial conflicts
    2. New England suffered heavy losses
    3. English finances and politics deeply affected
  2. Rivalry over the Ohio Valley in the 1750s
  3. French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), 1754-1763
    1. Washington's defeat at Fort Necessity
    2. Albany Congress, 1754
      1. Plan for union rejected
      2. Substantive results of the congress
    3. Expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia
    4. Braddock's campaign against Fort Duquesne
    5. Eruption of a world war
    6. Pitt's plan for victory
    7. Wolfe captures Quebec
    8. War against the Cherokees in the South
    9. Peace of Paris
      1. British territorial gains
      2. Pontiac's Rebellion
      3. Spain receives Louisiana
    10. British victory and the coming of the American Revolution
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