Chapter 1

Chapter 1: The Collision Of Cultures

Chapter Outline

Pre-Columbian Indian civilizations

  1. Possible origins of the American Indian
    1. Siberia
    2. Southwestern Europe
  2. Basic stages of development in Middle America
    1. Early stages
    2. Permanent towns emerged about 2000 B.C. in Mexico
    3. Farming of classical Middle American culture (Mayans) from A.D. 300 to 900
    4. Aztecs followed and developed the culture that was present when the Spanish arrived
    5. South American cultures: Chibchas and Incas
  3. Indians in the present United States reached three minor cultural climaxes
    1. Adena-Hopewell peoples of the Ohio Valley (800 B.C.-A.D. 600) had great earthworks
    2. Mississippian culture of the Mississippi Valley (A.D. 600-1500) climaxed about the time of the European discovery and influenced many tribes
    3. Pueblo-Hohokam-Anasazi cultures of the Southwest (400 B.C.-present) had looser class structure
  4. Native Americans in 1500
    1. Shared attributes and assumptions
    2. Eastern Woodlands peoples
      1. Algonquain
      2. Iroquoian
      3. Muskogean
    3. Plains nomads
    4. Pacific coast tribes
    5. Trauma and resilience when Europeans arrive

Viking arrival

  1. Greenland settlement
  2. Brief settlement of Newfoundland

Expansion of Europe

  1. The Renaissance brought an intense interest in knowledge of the world
    1. Knowledge that the earth was round
    2. Improved navigational aids: compass and astrolabe
    3. Development of urban commerce and global trade
      1. Merchant class
      2. Corporations that shared risk
    4. Barriers to trade with the Orient
    5. Rise of the nation states
    6. Contributions of the merchant class, professionals, gunpowder, and Crusades

Christopher Columbus and the discovery

  1. Explorations of the Portuguese
  2. Early life and efforts to gain support for a voyage west
  3. First voyage
  4. Later voyages
  5. America named for Amerigo Vespucci

The great biological exchange

  1. Animals
  2. Plants
  3. Worldwide population boom
  4. Native American devices and place names adopted
  5. Diseases unleashed

Other early professional explorers

  1. John Cabot
  2. Ferdinand Magellan

Spanish conquest and settlement of the new lands

  1. Initial Caribbean settlements
  2. Motives of the Spaniards
  3. European Advantages
    1. Division and disease among Indians
    2. Superior Spanish weapons
    3. Animals for food and battle
  4. Hernando Cortés and conquest of the Aztecs
  5. Patterns of Spanish conquest
    1. Encomienda system
    2. Introduction of African slavery
    3. Catholic missionary efforts
  6. Development of New Spain
    1. Governance by the Council of the Indies
    2. Advantages over European rivals
    3. Lasting imprint of Spanish culture
    4. Interchanges with the native culture
  7. Spanish exploration of North America
    1. Ponce de León
    2. Narváez and Cabeza de Vaca
    3. de Soto
    4. Coronado
  8. Early Spanish settlements
    1. Nature of Spanish settlements
    2. St. Augustine, first European town in United States
    3. The Spanish Southwest
      1. Importance of Catholic missions
      2. On?ate's founding of New Mexico
      3. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680
      4. Spain regained control of New Mexico
    4. Horses and the Great Plains

Impact of Protestant Reformation in Europe

  1. Early causes and spread of the movement
  2. Martin Luther
  3. Impact of Calvin
  4. Reformation in England
    1. An initial political revolt
    2. Periods of conflict
    3. Elizabethan settlement

Challenge to the Spanish Empire

  1. French efforts
    1. Verrazano explored coast in 1524
    2. Cartier led three voyages
  2. Dutch opposition to Spain
    1. Rebellion of the Netherlands against Spanish rule, 1567-1648
    2. Dutch "Sea Beggars" plunder Spanish ships
  3. British effort
    1. Elizabethan "Sea Dogges": John Hawkins and Francis Drake
    2. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588
    3. Promotion of British colonization
    4. Sir Humphrey Gilbert lost at sea
    5. Sir Walter Raleigh and the Roanoke "lost colonists"
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