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1 The Collision Of Cultures
2 Britain And Its Colonies
3 Colonial Ways Of Life
4 The Imperial Perspective
5 From Empire To Independence
6 The American Revolution
7 Shaping A Federal Union
8 The Federalist Era
9 The Early Republic
10 Nationalism And Sectionalism
11 The Jacksonian Impulse
12 The Dynamics Of Growth
13 An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, And Reform
14 Manifest Destiny
15 The Old South
16 The Crisis Of Union
17 The War Of The Union
18 Reconstruction: North And South
19 New Frontiers: South And West
20 Big Business And Organized Labor
21 The Emergence Of Urban America
22 Gilded-age Politics And Agrarian Revolt
23 An American Empire
24 The Progressive Era
25 America And The Great War
26 The Modern Temper
27 Republican Resurgence And Decline
28 New Deal America
29 From Isolation To Global War
30 The Second World War
31 The Fair Deal And Containment
32 Through The Picture Window: Society And Culture, 19451960
33 Conflict And Deadlock: The Eisenhower Years
34 New Frontiers: Politics And Social Change In The 1960s
35 Rebellion And Reaction In The 1960s And 1970s
36 A Conservative Insurgency
37 Triumph And Tragedy: America At The Turn Of The Century

Sources of Freedom. Stanley Hayami Diary (1942-44)

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This diary was from a teenage Japanese boy who had been relocated, or interned, with his family at the Heart Mountain camp in Wyoming. Three months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt had issued Executive Order 9066 that authorized the military to exclude people from militarily sensitive areas and relocate them to camps elsewhere. Long standing racist stereotypes and economic tensions between white Americans and Japanese-Americans had reached a boiling point. In all 110,000 Japanese were removed from the West Coast, their property and lands often lost, and their basic rights to court hearings, due process, or the writ of habeas corpus were suspended. Despite this treatment, many Japanese never wavered in their loyalty to America. Some like Stanley Hayami even joined the armed forces. Less than a year after he wrote his last journal entry in the camp, Stanley was killed trying to help a fellow soldier in Northern Italy.

Dec. 7, 1942

Today was the day last year in which this whole mess started. Last year it was Sunday.

I was busy outside that morning so I didn't hear about it when it happened. However in the afternoon business slowed down to a stand still, not a customer came for about an hour so I went back to the house and turned on the radio. The announcer kept butting in “Attention to all men in service, Report at once to your station. All leaves cancelled” Then tunning in on a news broadcast I heard the stunning news. ‘Pearl Harbour bombed'!! “About fifty planes came over the harbor at etc” I turned off the radio and rushed out from and told pa & ma.

That night we all felt as if we were in still having a nightmare. Obasan called and told about what was happening in L.A. That night we all went to sleep wondering what was going to happen to us. Little did I know then that one year from then I would be in Heart Mt Wyo. in a evacuation camp.

Dec. 8, 1942

Today, last year I went to school exited, scared (tho I had no reason to be) and sort of embarrassed. When I went to class everyone was talking about it and I felt a little conspiquous as if everyone was looking at me. The rest of the kids said hello to me as usual and all tried to keep off the topic of war. However I didn't feel much like talking about anything that day. All during English Class my English teacher had the news broadcasts on. One report was coming from Manila and was cut short as Jap. planes began flying over. After I got home I did little else except listening to news reports.

Today I took my physical exam.

Aug 21, 1944

Tonight is my last night here in camp. I'm leaving for the Army tomorrow morning. I'm leaving on approximately the same day that I got here some two years ago, Aug. 2, 1944

I remember that day very well – it was hot and dusty when the train pulled in next to the warehouses (we thought they were to be our barracks.) We looked outside, and there were a stock of Pomona kids, kids I knew, helping to take care of our baggage! It sure felt funny seeing people you knew after traveling some thousand miles.

The docs. looked us over and then we were loaded on trucks and driven to our assigned barracks. On the way, people lining the sheet yelled at us to greet us. I remember seeing George Azuma sitting under a telephone pole.

Well all this is past and memories now – I met a lot of good friends here in camp – There's Tsumeo, Tadao, George, Tomo, Paul, Mayekawa, Hirosh Komestse, Kumio Yamratuoto [?], Sab. Nayumo, Jimmy Yoda & Nokada

It'll be fun to see all these people again after years have gone by. I wonder how much Tsumeo, Tadao, & George will have improved in their [crossed out] physics and in their strength. George already presses 125, and only weighs 120. I wonder what sort of future scientists and artists they'll make.

Well only time will tell right now I've gotta get some shut eye – gotta get up early tomorrow – Hope Ma & Pa & Walt & Sach & Frank all stay in sound health and are happy always

Aloha til I [crossed out] write again – It may be a year in may be sooner (I hope) or maybe ten years (groan).


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