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1 The Collision Of Cultures
2 Britain And Its Colonies
3 Colonial Ways Of Life
4 The Imperial Perspective
5 From Empire To Independence
6 The American Revolution
7 Shaping A Federal Union
8 The Federalist Era
9 The Early Republic
10 Nationalism And Sectionalism
11 The Jacksonian Impulse
12 The Dynamics Of Growth
13 An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, And Reform
14 Manifest Destiny
15 The Old South
16 The Crisis Of Union
17 The War Of The Union
18 Reconstruction: North And South
19 New Frontiers: South And West
20 Big Business And Organized Labor
21 The Emergence Of Urban America
22 Gilded-age Politics And Agrarian Revolt
23 An American Empire
24 The Progressive Era
25 America And The Great War
26 The Modern Temper
27 Republican Resurgence And Decline
28 New Deal America
29 From Isolation To Global War
30 The Second World War
31 The Fair Deal And Containment
32 Through The Picture Window: Society And Culture, 19451960
33 Conflict And Deadlock: The Eisenhower Years
34 New Frontiers: Politics And Social Change In The 1960s
35 Rebellion And Reaction In The 1960s And 1970s
36 A Conservative Insurgency
37 Triumph And Tragedy: America At The Turn Of The Century

Sources of Freedom. "The Heathen Chinese Prospecting" (1852)

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This photograph was taken in 1852 probably near Jacksonville, Tuloumne County or Mongolian Flat on the American River. The caption describes the Chinese man in the foreground as a heathen, reflecting Euro-Americans' strong bias against the Chinese on the grounds of religion and race. The presence of this man in the gold fields illustrates the significant role that Chinese labor played in the construction and operation of the great mining operatives that sprang up after 1848. Since 1850, only white immigrants could become citizens, so the Chinese lived at the whim of local governments, unable to stake their own claims, to own land, or to resist unfairly applied taxes. Because of these restrictions, the Chinese usually remained in low-paying and backbreaking physical jobs, including working to build the transcontinental railroad (in fact, they played a remarkable job in its rapid construction). The racially exclusive nature of American democracy and liberty that kept African-Americans disenfranchised on the east coast worked similarly and without federal intervention against the Chinese on the west coast.

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