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1 The Collision Of Cultures
2 Britain And Its Colonies
3 Colonial Ways Of Life
4 The Imperial Perspective
5 From Empire To Independence
6 The American Revolution
7 Shaping A Federal Union
8 The Federalist Era
9 The Early Republic
10 Nationalism And Sectionalism
11 The Jacksonian Impulse
12 The Dynamics Of Growth
13 An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, And Reform
14 Manifest Destiny
15 The Old South
16 The Crisis Of Union
17 The War Of The Union
18 Reconstruction: North And South
19 New Frontiers: South And West
20 Big Business And Organized Labor
21 The Emergence Of Urban America
22 Gilded-age Politics And Agrarian Revolt
23 An American Empire
24 The Progressive Era
25 America And The Great War
26 The Modern Temper
27 Republican Resurgence And Decline
28 New Deal America
29 From Isolation To Global War
30 The Second World War
31 The Fair Deal And Containment
32 Through The Picture Window: Society And Culture, 19451960
33 Conflict And Deadlock: The Eisenhower Years
34 New Frontiers: Politics And Social Change In The 1960s
35 Rebellion And Reaction In The 1960s And 1970s
36 A Conservative Insurgency
37 Triumph And Tragedy: America At The Turn Of The Century

FROM Opinion of the Cabildo of Santa Fe (1680)

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First, that the convocation and plot of the said Indians seems to have been so secret that they perpetrated their treason generally in all the jurisdictions of the kingdom, as was seen, beginning on the night of August 9, when the said Indians took up their arms and, carried away by their indignation, killed religious, priests, Spaniards, and women, not sparing even innocent babes in arms; and as blind fiends of the devil, they set fire to the holy temples and images, mocking them with their dances and making trophies of the priestly vestments and other things belonging to divine worship. Their hatred and barbarous ferocity went to such extremes that in the pueblo of Sandia images of saints were found among excrement, two chalices were found concealed in a basket of manure, and there was a carved crucifix with the paint and varnish taken off by lashes. There was also excrement at the place of the holy communion table at the main altar, and a sculptured image of Saint Francis with the arms hacked off; and all this was seen in one temple only, as we were marching out. The church of the villa was entirely consumed by fire before your lordshipss eyes and those of this cabildo and the people who were present in the siege to which the enemy subjected us. When they had us surrounded in the said casas reales, and fighting with them, because the said temple was not defended it caught fire and burned until it was consumed and entirely demolished, only the walls remaining. All this was in addition to the ravages and sacrileges that they committed in the other jurisdictions of thirty-four pueblos, and in the estancias and houses of the Spaniards of which the said New Mexico is composed, its settlements being so scattered and undefended that the people who are now in this army have escaped by a miracle. Here we have found that the prelate and the head of this church has lost eighteen clerical ministers and two lay religious, which make twenty-one. There have died besides more than three hundred and eighty Spaniards of military age, all of whom have perished at the hands of the rebellious enemy, having been robbed of arms, haciendas, and everything they possessed. The same was done before your lordships eyes, alike in the said villa, where they sacked our houses and set fire to them, and in the convents and estancias, for the truth of this is proved by what we saw for ourselves on the march which was made to leave the kingdom. We found the pueblos deserted, the convents and estancias sacked, and the horses, cattle, and other articles of our household goods on the mesas and in the roughest parts of the sierras, with the said enemy guarding all of it and verbally mocking and insulting us. There is no doubt that we should not have succeeded in making the said withdrawal if it had not been for divine assistance; for a troop of cavalry fighting off the enemy; and for some stray cattle that had escaped, and the ears of corn that were gathered in the cornfields in the country. This your lordship knows, you, like ourselves, having lived for many days on roasted corn, without which we would no doubt have perished of hunger. The cabildo calls attention also to the affliction and care which we experienced on our way, watching over the guarding the royal standard and the many families during the siege and fighting which took place in the villa as well as along the road, which has lasted from the ninth day of August down to the present, the third of October. We have watched over the said families and the horses, and assisted at the headquarters of the royal standard and at many other tasks that have come up, keeping horses saddled and armed day and night. They have become lean from service and have been unfit for use for many days, so that many of them have died; and we find ourselves worn out from fatigue, hunger, and lack of sleep, from which some persons are becoming ill.

To-day, after eighty-odd years of communication with the Spaniards, many of them are intelligent, are skillful on horseback, and able to manage firearms as well as any Spaniard; and they have a knowledge of all the territory of the kingdom and many of them are familiar with all New Spain from Vera Cruz to Sonora. The total number of natives now exceed sixteen thousand souls, not counting the heathen nations friendly to and in communication with them, who are so numerous that no estimate of their numbers can be made, because they entirely surround New Mexico and in parts extend more than two hundred leagues from the villa of Santa Fe.

In other conspiracies which the Jemez Indians have attempted they have seen the light and, the aggressors being punished, the discord has subsided. To-day the contrary has happened, because in a time of greatest quiet and tranquility in the kingdom, all of them in general rebelled on one day and at one hour, and it was by a miracle of God that they did not destroy everything, as was their intention. Our return to the kingdom must be in the form of a conquest with men, arms, and supplies to safeguard and garrison it as it is reduced to the yoke of the holy gospel and obedience to the Catholic Majesty, so that they may be subjected and their allies intimidated by the authority and arms of his Majesty.

Reference : America: A Narrative History, 6th Edition, Chapter 3; Inventing America, Chapter 3; Give Me Liberty, Chapter 3

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