Chapter 37: Triumph And Tragedy: America At The Turn Of The Century

Chapter Outline

  1. The nation in the 1990s
    1. Demographic changes
      1. Aging population
      2. Growth of Sunbelt
      3. Metropolitan growth
      4. Working women
      5. Decline of family unit
      6. African-American poverty
    2. New immigrants
      1. Non-European
      2. Resurgent nativism
    3. Computer revolution
      1. First-generation computers
      2. Postwar developments
        1. Private corporations
        2. The transistor
      3. Third generation
        1. Microprocessor
        2. Personal computer
        3. Bill Gates
      4. Internet
  2. Cultural conservatism
    1. Attack on liberal agenda
      1. For decency and propriety
      2. Against affirmative action
    2. Religious right
      1. Christian Coalition
      2. Traditional family values
      3. Political activism
  3. Bush to Clinton
    1. Background to 1992 election
      1. New international scene
        1. Gulf War
        2. Collapse of Soviet Union
      2. The economy
        1. Recession
        2. Declining standard of living
      3. Nomination of Clarence Thomas
        1. Sexual harassment charges
        2. Confirmation
        3. Effects
          1. More women candidates
          2. Republican gender gap
      4. Republican divisions
        1. Tax increase
        2. Social issues
          1. Christian right
          2. Pat Buchanan
    2. Democratic nomination
      1. Clinton’s background
      2. Primary contests
    3. Election of 1992
      1. Economic issues
      2. Ross Perot
      3. Results
  4. Domestic affairs in Clinton’s first term
    1. Initial inconsistencies and problems
    2. The economy
      1. Stimulus package approved
      2. NAFTA
    3. Health care reform
      1. Background
      2. Universal medical coverage
      3. Opposition successful
    4. Spread of militia movement
      1. Hatred of federal authority
      2. Siege at Waco
      3. Oklahoma City bombing
  5. Domestic policies
    1. Election of 1994
      1. GOP wins control of Congress
      2. Repudiation of Clinton
      3. Republican initiative
    2. “Contract with America”
      1. Newton Leroy Gingrich
      2. Assault on welfare state
      3. Ten-point program
      4. Legislative program
      5. Limited success
    3. Legislative breakthroughs in 1996
      1. Minimum wage and health insurance
      2. Welfare reform
    4. 1996 election
      1. Bob Dole
        1. Background
        2. Liabilities
      2. Campaign
      3. Results
        1. Clinton reelected
        2. GOP majority in Congress
  6. Economic and social trends
    1. The new economy
      1. Prosperity
        1. “Peace dividend”
        2. Reduction in federal spending
        3. Worker productivity
        4. Dot-com boom
        5. International markets
      2. Effects on white-collar workers
    2. The courts and race
      1. Limitations on progress for minorities
      2. Adarand Construction case
      3. Hopwood Texas
      4. Proposition 209
    3. Scandals
      1. Whitewater
      2. Kenneth Starr
      3. Monica Lewinsky
      4. Starr Report
      5. Impeachment and acquittal
  7. Foreign affairs
    1. Low priority
    2. Somalia
    3. Haiti
      1. Support for Aristide
      2. Negotiations and troops
    4. Middle East
      1. Inclusion of PLO in talks
      2. Israel-PLO agreement
      3. Assassination of Rubin
      4. 1998 agreement among Arafat, Clinton, and Netanyahu
    5. Yugoslavia
      1. Ethnic conflict
      2. Peace Plan
      3. Kosovo
        1. 1998 flare-up
        2. Ethnic cleansing
        3. NATO air strikes
    6. Globalization
  8. Bush presidency
    1. Election of 2000
      1. Candidates for president
        1. Major parties
        2. Independents
      2. Controversial result
        1. Florida
        2. Bush Gore
      3. Even partisan divisions
    2. Early Bush presidency
      1. Experienced cabinet
      2. Economic problems
        1. Stock market collapse
        2. Corporate illegality
      3. Tax cut
      4. Loss of control in Senate
    3. Education reform
      1. No Child Left Behind
        1. Learning standards
        2. Teacher qualifications
      2. Inadequate funding
    4. The environment
      1. Rejection of Kyoto Protocol
      2. Rolling back restrictions
      3. Advances in protection
  9. Terrorism
    1. Rise of global terrorism
      1. America’s dominance
      2. Clash over religion, ethnicity, and cultural values
    2. September 11, 2001
      1. Aerial attacks
      2. Effects and reactions
      3. Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden
        1. Earlier actions
        2. Collaboration of Taliban
        3. Objectives
    3. War on terrorism
      1. Effects of terrorism on economy
      2. International coalition
      3. Operation Enduring Freedom
        1. Military attacks on Afghans
        2. Collapse of Taliban
        3. New Afghan government
    4. Terrorism at home
      1. Office of Homeland Security
      2. Patriot Act
    5. Middle East
      1. More Palestinian-Israeli violence
      2. Election of Ariel Sharon
  10. Bush and foreign affairs
    1. Bush Doctrine
      1. End of containment, deterrence, and multilateral groups
      2. Doctrine of preemptive military action
    2. The Second Gulf War
      1. Prelude to war
        1. Worries over Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and terrorism
        2. Congressional authorizationU.N. Resolution 1441
      2. Operation Iraqi Freedom
        1. Bombing and invasion began March 19, 2003
        2. Occupation of Baghdad
        3. Quick, decisive six-week war
      3. Difficult postwar peace
        1. Religious and ethnic feuds, tensions, violence in Iraq
        2. Terror and sabotage against coalition forces
        3. Effects on foreign relations
      4. Continued Iraqi insurgency in 2003 and 2004
      5. Admission of no weapons of mass destruction
  11. The second Bush administration
    1. The election of 2004
      1. Polarization and partisanship
      2. Democrat John Kerry
      3. Bush’s narrow victory
      4. Republican Congress
    2. Mixed results with Congress
    3. Supreme Court nominees
      1. John Roberts
      2. Harriet Miers
      3. Samuel Alito
    4. Hurricane Katrina
      1. New Orleans and the Gulf Coast
      2. FEMA fumbles
      3. Costs
      4. Environmental forces
      5. Human inaction
    5. Stalled presidency
      1. Low job approval
      2. Economic problems
      3. Failed reform efforts
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