Chapter 35: Rebellion And Reaction In The 1960s And 1970s

Chapter Outline

  1. Youth revolt
    1. Sources
      1. Baby boomers as young adults
      2. Sit-ins and end of apathy
    2. New Left
      1. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
        1. Port Huron Statement
        2. Participatory democracy
      2. Free Speech movement
        1. Berkeley
        2. Quality of campus life
      3. Anti-war protests
        1. The draft
        2. Teach-ins and protests
      4. Growing militancy
      5. 1968
        1. Columbia University uprising
        2. Democratic convention in Chicago
        3. Fracturing of SDS
    3. Counterculture
      1. Descendants of the Beats
      2. Contrasted with New Left
      3. Drugs, communes, hedonism
      4. Rock music
        1. Woodstock
        2. Altamont
      5. Co-optation and failure
  2. The rights of women and minorities
    1. Feminism
      1. Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique
      2. National Organization for Women
      3. Federal actions
        1. Affirmative action
        2. Roe Wade
        3. Equal Rights Amendment
      4. Divisions and reactions
    2. Sexual revolution and the pill
      1. Age of permissiveness
        1. “Make love, not war”
        2. Oral contraceptive
          1. 1960 approval
          2. Popularity
          3. Effects
    3. Hispanics
      1. United Farm Workers
      2. Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans
      3. Political power
    4. Native Americans
      1. Emergence of Native American rights
      2. American Indian Movement
      3. Legal actions
    5. Gays and lesbians
      1. Raid on Stonewall Inn
      2. Gay Liberation Front
      3. Christian fundamentalist reaction
  3. Nixon and Vietnam
    1. Reaction in the 1970s
      1. Election of 1968
      2. The “Silent Majority”
    2. Policy of withdrawal
      1. Insistence on Communist withdrawal from South Vietnam
      2. Efforts to undercut unrest in the United States
        1. Troop reductions
        2. Lottery and volunteer army
      3. Expanded air war
    3. Impact of the war on military morale
      1. Military disobedience
      2. Fraggings
      3. Drug problems
    4. Occasions for public outcry against the war
      1. My Lai massacre
      2. Cambodian “incursion”
        1. Campus riots
        2. Public reaction
      3. Pentagon Papers
        1. Method of disclosure
        2. Revelations of the papers
        3. Supreme Court ruling
    5. U.S. withdrawal
      1. Kissinger’s efforts before the 1972 election
      2. Christmas bombings
      3. Final acceptance of peace
      4. U.S. withdrawal in March 1973
    6. Ultimate victory of the North, March–April 1975
    7. Assessment of the war
      1. Communist control
      2. Failure to transfer democracy
      3. Erosion of respect for the military
      4. Drastic division of the U.S. people
      5. Impact on future foreign policy
  4. Nixon and Middle America
    1. Reflection of Middle American values
    2. Domestic affairs
      1. Southern strategy
      2. Continuance of civil rights progress
        1. Voting Rights Act continued over a veto
        2. Supreme Court upheld integration
          1. In Mississippi
          2. Support for busing
        3. Congress refused to end busing
        4. Limitation on busing in Detroit
        5. Bakke decision
      3. Revenue sharing
      4. Other domestic legislation
    3. Economic malaise
      1. Development of stagflation
      2. Causes
      3. Nixon’s efforts to improve the economy
        1. Reducing the federal deficit
        2. Reducing the money supply
        3. Imposing wage and price controls
    4. Environmental movement
      1. Recognition of the limits of growth
      2. Accomplishments
        1. Endangered Species Act
        2. National Environmental Policy Act
        3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
        4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
      3. Impact of the energy crisis
      4. Reasons for opposition to environmental reform
        1. Cost
        2. Loss of faith in governmental efforts
        3. Refusal to accept lesser standard of living
  5. Nixon’s foreign triumphs
    1. General approach
      1. Multipolar world
      2. Nixon Doctrine
    2. Rapprochement with China
      1. Background to the visit
      2. Benefits of the Nixon visit
    3. Détente with the Soviet Union
      1. Visit to Moscow
      2. SALT agreement
      3. Trade agreements
    4. Kissinger’s shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East
  6. Election of 1972
    1. Removal of the Wallace threat
    2. McGovern candidacy
    3. Results of the election
    4. D.Watergate break-in
  7. Watergate
    1. Judge Sirica’s role
    2. Unraveling the cover-up
      1. Nixon’s personal role
      2. Development of illegal tactics
      3. April resignations
      4. Discovery of the tapes
      5. Saturday Night Massacre
      6. Supreme Court decided against the president
      7. Articles of impeachment
      8. Resignation
    3. Aftermath of Watergate
      1. Ford’s selection
      2. Nixon pardon
      3. Distrust of leaders and institutions
      4. Shock at the crudity of leaders
      5. Resiliency of U.S. institutions
      6. War Powers Act
      7. Campaign financing legislation
      8. Freedom of Information Act
  8. Ford presidency
    1. Drift at the end of the Nixon administration
    2. Ford’s battle with the economy
    3. Foreign policy accomplishments
    4. Election of 1976
      1. Ford’s nomination
      2. Reasons for the Carter rise
      3. Carter’s victory
  9. Carter’s presidency
    1. Carter’s style and his challenges
    2. Early domestic moves
      1. Appointments
      2. Amnesty for draft dodgers
      3. Administrative reorganization
      4. Environmental legislation
      5. Deregulation of the oil industry
      6. Crisis of confidence
    3. Foreign policy initiatives
      1. Human rights focus
      2. Panama Canal treaties
      3. Diplomatic relations with China
      4. Camp David Accords
    4. Failure to manage the economy
      1. Emphasis on reducing unemployment
      2. Reversal: the reduction of government deficits
    5. SALT II negotiations
    6. Reactions to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
    7. Iranian crisis
      1. Background to the seizure
      2. Carter’s efforts to help the hostages
      3. Crisis ended
Close this Page