Chapter 34: New Frontiers: Politics And Social Change In The 1960s

Chapter Outline

  1. Kennedy’s New Frontier
    1. Election of 1960
      1. Nixon as politician
      2. Kennedy’s background
      3. The campaign
        1. Neutralization of religion
        2. Televised debates
      4. Results
    2. Kennedy’s administration
      1. Caliber of appointments
      2. Kennedy’s style
    3. Domestic record
      1. Congressional conservatism
      2. The tax-cut proposal
      3. Legislative successes
        1. Foreign aid
        2. Peace Corps
        3. Trade expansion
        4. Housing assistance
        5. Increased minimum wage
        6. Area development
        7. Space race
    4. The Warren Court
      1. School prayer
      2. Criminal justice
    5. Growing movement for civil rights
      1. Kennedy’s position
      2. Sit-ins
        1. Mass movement
        2. Student participants
        3. Formation of SNCC
      3. Freedom rides
      4. Federal intervention
        1. Integration of “Ole Miss”
        2. Birmingham demonstrations
          1. “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
          2. King’s shift in strategy
        3. JFK’s changing position
        4. Confrontation with George Wallace
      5. March on Washington
    6. Foreign frontiers
      1. Bay of Pigs
        1. Invasion
        2. “Colossal mistake”
      2. Vienna Summit
      3. Berlin Wall
      4. Cuban Missile Crisis
        1. The crisis
        2. Kennedy’s action
        3. Resolution of the crisis
        4. Aftereffects
          1. Lowered tension
          2. Sale of wheat
          3. Washington-Moscow hotline
          4. iRemoval of obsolete missiles
          5. Nuclear test ban treaty
      5. Neutrality for Laos
      6. Vietnam
        1. Diem’s failure to reform or gain popular support
        2. Kennedy’s reluctance to escalate
        3. Heightened opposition to Diem
        4. Overthrow of Diem
    7. The Kennedy assassination
  2. Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society
    1. Johnson’s background and style
      1. Paradoxical personality
      2. Political experience
      3. Congressional leadership
      4. “Johnson treatment”
    2. Early legislative achievements
      1. Revenue Act of 1964
      2. Civil Rights Act of 1964
      3. The War on Poverty
        1. Impact of The Other America
        2. Economic Opportunity Act
    3. The election of 1964
      1. Republicans seek a “choice”
      2. Goldwater’s positions
      3. Johnson’s appeal to consensus
      4. The Johnson landslide
    4. Landmark legislation
      1. Health insurance
      2. Aid to education
      3. Appalachian redevelopment
      4. Housing and urban development
      5. Immigration Act of 1965
    5. Civil rights movement
      1. Civil Rights Act of 1964
      2. Voting rights
        1. Selma march
        2. LBJ’s support
        3. Voting Rights Act of 1965
    6. The development of black power
      1. The riots of 1965 and 1966
      2. Assessment of the urban black condition
      3. The focus on black power
        1. Stokely Carmichael
        2. The Black Panthers
        3. Malcolm X
        4. Assessment of black power
  3. The tragedy of Vietnam
    1. U.S. involvement
      1. General policies
      2. Costs of war
    2. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution
      1. Basis for the request
      2. Provisions of the resolution
    3. Escalation in 1965
      1. Attack on Pleiku
      2. Operation Rolling Thunder
      3. Combat troops
    4. The context for policy
      1. Consistency with earlier foreign policy goals
      2. Warnings from advisers
      3. The goal of United States involvement
      4. The erosion of support
    5. The turning point of the war
      1. The Tet Offensive
      2. The presidential primaries
      3. Johnson’s decision to move out
  4. The crescendo of the sixties
    1. The tragedies of 1968
      1. Martin Luther King Jr.
      2. Robert Kennedy
    2. Convergence on the election of 1968
      1. Chicago demonstrations
      2. The contrast of Miami
      3. The Wallace campaign
      4. The results
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