Chapter 33: Conflict And Deadlock: The Eisenhower Years

Chapter Outline

  1. Election of 1952
    1. Liabilities of the Truman administration
    2. Eisenhower’s appeal and background
    3. Democrats’ drafting of Stevenson
    4. The campaign
    5. Results
  2. Eisenhower’s early leadership in domestic affairs
    1. Eisenhower’s background and reputation
      1. Earlier career
      2. More recent assessment of his actions
    2. Dynamic conservatism
      1. Appointments
      2. Budget cuts and tax reductions
      3. Extension of some New Deal programs
        1. Social Security benefits
        2. Minimum-wage increases
        3. Low-income housing
        4. Farm programs
    3. Major public works programs
      1. St. Lawrence Seaway
      2. Interstate Highway System
    4. Concluding an armistice in Korea
      1. Means of obtaining agreement
      2. Terms of the armistice
      3. Factors influencing the change
    5. Concluding the McCarthy witch-hunt
      1. McCarthy’s battle with the army
      2. The dénouement of McCarthy
    6. New efforts for internal security
    7. The Warren Court
  3. Foreign policy during Ike’s first term
    1. John Foster Dulles
      1. Background
      2. Policy of liberation
      3. Allen Dulles and the CIA
    2. Containment
      1. Policy of massive retaliation
      2. Theory of brinksmanship
    3. The problems of Indochina
      1. Ending colonialism in Southeast Asia
        1. Independence of British colonies
        2. Creation of independent Indonesia
        3. Ho Chi Minh’s efforts for independence in Indochina
      2. First Indochinese War
        1. Onset of the war
        2. Increasing U.S. aid
        3. Eisenhower’s domino theory
      3. The Geneva Accords
        1. French defeats
        2. Provisions of the accords
        3. Reactions
      4. Creation of SEATO
      5. Vietnamese government under Diem
        1. Need for reform
        2. Diem’s effort to maintain power
        3. Emergence of the NLF
    4. The issue of Quemoy and Matsu
  4. The election of 1956
    1. Ike’s health
    2. Republican campaign
    3. The Democratic campaign
    4. Foreign crisis in campaign
      1. Suez Canal
      2. Hungary
    5. Results
  5. Second term problems
    1. Crisis in Middle East
      1. Eisenhower’s policy of alliances
      2. Relations with Egypt
        1. Support British withdrawal
        2. Opposition to policies
        3. Seizure of canal
        4. Israel invades
        5. Resolution of conflict
    2. Revolt in Hungary
      1. Change in Soviet attitudes
      2. New government in Hungary
      3. Soviet repression
    3. Impact of Sputnik
      1. Soviet feat
      2. U.S. reactions
        1. Space effort
        2. Deployment of missiles
        3. Creation of NASA
        4. National Defense Education Act
    4. Another Middle East crisis
      1. Eisenhower Doctrine
      2. United Arab Republic
      3. Intervention in Lebanon
    5. Communist threat to Quemoy and Matsu
    6. The Berlin problem
    7. The U-2 Summit
      1. Downing of spy plane
      2. Ike’s fumbling reaction
      3. Khrushchev’s response
    8. Castro’s Cuba
      1. Castro’s takeover
      2. U.S. responses
  6. Stirrings in civil rights
    1. Eisenhower’s views of civil rights
    2. Court decisions
      1. Decisions preliminary to Brown
      2. The Brown decision
      3. Reactions to Brown
        1. Ike’s reluctance
        2. Token integration
        3. Massive resistance
          1. Citizens’ Councils
          2. Southern Manifesto
    3. Montgomery bus boycott
      1. Causes for action
      2. Role of Martin Luther King, Jr.
      3. Results
    4. Civil rights legislation
    5. Little Rock
      1. Court order
      2. Governor Faubus
      3. Federal intervention
  7. Assessing the Eisenhower years
    1. Accomplishments
    2. The farewell address
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