Chapter 30: The Second World War

Chapter Outline

  1. United States’s early battles
    1. Retreat in the Pacific
      1. Collapse along the Pacific
      2. Surrender of the Philippines
      3. Japanese strategy
      4. U.S. harassment
      5. Battle of the Coral Sea, May 1942
    2. Midway: a turning point
    3. Early setbacks in the Atlantic
      1. Devastation from German submarines
      2. Strategy of small patrol vessels
  2. Mobilization at home
    1. Mobilization of the armed forces
    2. Economic conversion to war
      1. Prewar planning
      2. War Production Board
      3. Role of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
      4. Methods of supplying strategic materials
    3. Financing the war
      1. Roosevelt’s effort to raise taxes
      2. Congressional reaction to taxation
      3. Sale of bonds
    4. Impact of the war on the economy
      1. Impact on personal incomes
      2. Efforts to control prices
      3. Efforts to control wages and farm prices
      4. Seizure of industries
    5. Domestic conservatism
      1. Congressional elections of 1942
      2. Abolition of New Deal agencies
      3. Anti-labor actions
    6. Development of the West
      1. Defense contracts
      2. Population growth
  3. Social effects of the war
    1. A.Women
      1. In the civilian workforce and the military
      2. Changing attitudes toward sex roles
    2. Blacks
      1. Segregation in the armed forces
      2. In war industries
        1. March on Washington Movement
        2. Black militancy
      3. Challenges to other discrimination
      4. Militant white reaction
    3. Native Americans
      1. Jobs in military and industry
      2. Reasons for service
      3. “Code talkers”
    4. Japanese Americans
      1. Civil liberties
      2. Internment of the Nisei
    5. Mexican Americans
  4. The war in Europe
    1. Basis for moving against Germany first
    2. Aspects of joint conduct of the war
    3. The formulation of the decision for the North African invasion
    4. North African campaign
      1. Eisenhower’s landing
      2. German surrender
    5. Agreements at Casablanca
    6. The battle of the Atlantic
      1. Techniques for fighting submarines
      2. Impact on the battle
    7. Sicily and Italy
      1. Invasion of Sicily
      2. Italian surrender
      3. German control of northern Italy
      4. The battle for Rome
    8. Strategic bombing of Europe
      1. British and U.S. cooperation
      2. Impact of the bombing
    9. Decisions of the Teheran Conference
    10. D-Day Invasion
      1. Allied planning
      2. German preparations
      3. Invasion
        1. Size of force
        2. Threats to success
        3. Losses
      4. German reaction
      5. Invasion of French Mediterranean coast
      6. Slow drive on Germany
  5. The war in the Pacific
    1. Guadalcanal offensive
    2. MacArthur’s sweep up the West Pacific
      1. Approval for the MacArthur plan
      2. The technique of “leapfrogging”
      3. The MacArthur sweep
    3. Nimitz’s moves in the Central Pacific
    4. The naval battle of Leyte Gulf
  6. The election of 1944
    1. Republican strategy
    2. Democratic vice-presidential choice
    3. Campaign and results
  7. The end of the war
    1. Closing in on Germany
      1. The German counteroffensive
      2. Final Russian offensive
      3. Allied moves
    2. The Yalta Conference
      1. Decisions
      2. Call for a United Nations
      3. Occupation of Germany
      4. Eastern Europe
      5. Assessment of decisions
    3. Collapse of the Third Reich
      1. FDR’s death
      2. Fall of Germany
      3. Discovery of Nazi Holocaust
    4. The grinding war in the Pacific
      1. Japanese resistance in the Pacific
      2. Occupation of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
      3. Impact of successes on conduct of war
    5. The atomic bomb
      1. Its development
      2. The decision to use it
        1. Truman’s opinion
        2. Costs of invasion
        3. Military practices
        4. Conditions in Japan
      3. Effects of two bombs
      4. Negotiations for surrender
    6. Final ledger on the war
      1. Death and destruction
      2. Impact on United States
        1. Prosperity
        2. Catalyst to civil rights and women’s movements
        3. Solidification of Democratic power
        4. Growth of government
        5. Global responsibilities
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