Chapter 28: New Deal America

Chapter Outline

  1. Election of 1932
    1. Countryís plight in 1932Ė1933
    2. Republicans renominated Hoover
    3. Democrats nominated Roosevelt
      1. Calls for New Deal
      2. FDRís background
    4. Campaign
      1. FDRís proposals
      2. FDR-Hoover contrasts
    5. Results
  2. The early New Deal
    1. Inauguration
    2. Influences on New Deal policies
      1. Wartime experience
      2. Social work background
    3. General policies
      1. Problems
        1. The economy
        2. Human misery
        3. Agriculture
      2. Competing proposals
        1. Anti-trust laws
        2. Collaboration with big business
        3. Expanded welfare and government spending
      3. FDRís opinions
        1. Inconsistent
        2. Christian and democrat
        3. Pragmatic
      4. Strategy
        1. Financial crisis and emergency relief
        2. Industrial recovery
          1. Federal spending
          2. Cooperative agreements
        3. Raise commodity prices
    4. Initial efforts
      1. Banking and the economy
        1. Bank holiday
        2. Emergency Banking Act
        3. Economy Act
        4. Refinancing farm and home mortgages
        5. Reform of banking and stock markets
          1. Creation of FDIC
          2. Regulation of stocks and bonds
        6. Abandonment of gold standard
      2. Relief measures
        1. Civilian Conservation Corps
        2. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
        3. Civil Works Administration
        4. Works Progress Administration
          1. Federal Art and Writersí Projects
          2. National Youth Administration
  3. Recovery through regulation
    1. Ideas of brain trust
    2. Aid for agriculture
      1. Wide variety of options within AAA
      2. Immediate action to prevent surpluses
      3. Establishment of marketing quotas for cotton and tobacco
      4. General effects on farm income
      5. Second AAA
        1. Supreme Court overturns first AAA
        2. Soil Conversion Act
    3. Efforts for the recovery of industry
      1. National Industrial Recovery Act
      2. Title II: the Public Works Administration (PWA)
      3. The National Recovery Administration (NRA)
        1. Two primary aims
        2. Nature of the NRA operation
        3. Development of the ďblanket codeĒ
        4. Objections to the NRA codes
        5. Enduring impact of the NRA
    4. Regional planning: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
      1. Historical basis for the concept
      2. The legislation
      3. Impact of the TVA
      4. Creation of the Rural Electrification Association (REA)
  4. Human cost of the Depression
    1. Hardships in personal lives
      1. Unemployment
      2. Marriage and birthrates
    2. Dust bowl
      1. Southern plains
      2. Causes
        1. Drought
        2. Industrial agriculture
      3. Human effects
      4. Migration
        1. The migrants
        2. To urban California
        3. Okie subculture
    3. Minorities
      1. Programs for whites only
      2. Effects of crop reductions on tenants
      3. Mexican Americans
        1. Lack of citizenship
        2. Calls for deportation
      4. Native Americans
        1. John Collier
        2. Indian Reorganization Act
      5. Supreme Court and blacks
  5. Culture in the 1930s
    1. Literature and the Depression
      1. Effects of Depression
        1. Social activism
        2. Communism
      2. Novelists of social significance
        1. John Steinbeck
        2. Richard Wright
    2. Popular culture
      1. Radio
        1. Entertainment
        2. Fireside chats
      2. Movies
        1. Gangsters
        2. Musicals
        3. Comedies
  6. The Second New Deal
    1. Eleanor Roosevelt
      1. Background
      2. Relationship with FDR
      3. First lady
        1. Presidential adviser
        2. Advocate for blacks
        3. Liaison for liberals
    2. Criticism of the New Deal
      1. American Liberty League
      2. Critics on the left
        1. Huey P. Long
        2. Francis Townsend
        3. Charles Coughlin
      3. Supreme Court
    3. Legislative achievements
      1. Wagner Act
      2. Social Security Act
        1. Pension fund
        2. Unemployment insurance
        3. Aid to unemployables
        4. Limitations
      3. Revenue Act of 1935
  7. FDRís second term
    1. Election of 1936
      1. Alfred M. Landon
      2. Union Party
      3. FDRís coalition
      4. Outcome
    2. Court-packing plan
      1. Enlarge the court
      2. Opposition
      3. Changes in the court
      4. Effects of the fight
    3. Stirrings among labor
      1. Impetus to unionization
      2. Rise of industrial unions
      3. Intense conflict with management
        1. Techniques used by management
        2. Action by autoworkers
          1. Sit-down strike
          2. Walter Reuther
          3. United Auto Workers
        3. CIO victories
        4. Growing power for organized labor
    4. Reaction to a new depression
      1. Course of the 1937 slump
      2. Administrationís reaction
      3. The battle over spending
        1. Fear of the unbalanced budget
        2. Keynesian theory
      4. Rooseveltís call for spending
      5. Reforms of 1937
        1. Housing legislation
        2. Assistance for rural poverty
          1. Farm Tenant Act
          2. Work of the Farm Security Administration
      6. The legislation of 1938
        1. Second AAA
        2. Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
        3. Fair Labor Standards Act
    5. Setbacks to the New Deal
      1. Emergence of an opposition
        1. Defection of the southerners
        2. Victories of the opposition in 1938
      2. Rooseveltís 1938 purge
      3. Results of the 1938 elections
      4. Limited legislation in 1939
  8. Legacy of the New Deal: halfway revolution
    1. Enlarged government
    2. Restoration of hope
    3. Increased government responsibility
    4. Revolutionary and conservative
Close this Page