Chapter 26: The Modern Temper

Chapter Outline

  1. Impact of war
    1. Disillusionment with old values
    2. Emergence of modernism
    3. Political and social radicalism
  2. Reactions in the 1920s
    1. Nativism
      1. Sacco and Vanzetti case
      2. Efforts to restrict immigration
      3. Revival of Ku Klux Klan
        1. 100% Americanism
        2. Outside the South
        3. 3-8 million members
    2. Fundamentalism
      1. Growth of fundamentalism
      2. Leaders
      3. Scopes trial
        1. William Jennings Bryan
        2. Tennessee law
        3. Clarence Darrow
    3. Prohibition
      1. Temperance organizations
      2. Eighteenth Amendment
      3. Effects of Prohibition
      4. Links to organized crime
      5. Al Capone
      6. Wickersham Report
  3. The Roaring Twenties
    1. A time of cultural conflict
    2. Disdain for rural-small-town values
    3. The Jazz Age
      1. Blend of musical traditions
      2. Movies
    4. The new morality
      1. Emphasis on youth
      2. Loosened taboos
      3. Obsession with sex
        1. Freud
        2. Popular entertainment
      4. The flapper
    5. Birth control
      1. Margaret Sanger
      2. Popular support for Sanger
      3. Eugenics
    6. The women's movement
      1. The work for women's suffrage
        1. Alice Paul and new tactics
        2. Contributions of Carrie Chapman Catt
        3. Passage and ratification of the amendment
      2. Push for an Equal Rights Amendment
      3. Women in the workforce
    7. The "New Negro"
      1. The Great Migration north
        1. Demographics
        2. Impact of the move
      2. The Harlem Renaissance
      3. Marcus Garvey and Negro Nationalism
        1. Racial separatism
        2. Racial pride and self-reliance
        3. Fate of Garvey
      4. Development of the NAACP
        1. Emergence of the organization
        2. Role of Du Bois
        3. Effect of legislation
        4. The campaign against lynching
  4. The culture of modernism
    1. Science and social thought
      1. Einstein and relativity
      2. Max Planck and quantum theory
      3. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
      4. Denial of absolute values
    2. Modernist literature
      1. Chief features
        1. Exploration of the irrational
        2. Uncertainty seen as desirable
        3. Positive view of conflict
        4. Formal manners discounted for contact with "reality"
      2. Artistic bohemias
      3. The Armory show
      4. Chief U.S. prophets of modernism
        1. Ezra Pound
        2. T. S. Eliot
        3. Gertrude Stein
        4. Scott Fitzgerald
        5. Ernest Hemingway
          1. Cult of masculinity
          2. Terse literary style
    3. Southern literary renaissance
      1. Reaction to growth of modern world
      2. Thomas Wolfe
      3. William Faulkner
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