Chapter 23: An American Empire

Chapter Outline

  1. The new imperialism
    1. Global context
      1. Economic sources
      2. Europeans in Asia and Africa
    2. American imperialism
      1. Extra-continental territories
      2. Debate over expansion
      3. Alfred Thayer Mahan
    3. Imperialist theories
      1. Anglo-Saxon superiority
      2. Christian mission
  2. Expansion in the Pacific
    1. Seward and the purchase of Alaska
    2. Involvement in Samoa
    3. Relations with Hawaii
      1. Reciprocal trade agreement
      2. Economic crisis
      3. Revolution and U.S. intervention
      4. Annexation by the United States.
  3. Development of the Spanish-American War
    1. Effects of American investments and tariffs
    2. Guerrilla warfare by revolutionaries
    3. Wyler's reconcentration policy
    4. Role of the press in the war
      1. Contest between Hearst's Journal and Pulitzer's World
      2. Examples of yellow journalism
    5. Cleveland's efforts for compromise
    6. Spanish response to McKinley's stance
    7. Arousal of public opinion
      1. de Lôme letter (Fe9, 1898)
      2. Sinking of the Maine (Fe15, 1898)
    8. Final moves to war
    9. Motives for war
  4. Fighting the "splendid little war"
    1. Naval victory at Manila Bay
    2. Cuban campaign
      1. Rough Riders
      2. Siege of Santiago
    3. Terms of the armistice
  5. Results of the war
    1. Treaty of Paris
      1. Negotiations
      2. Motives for annexation
      3. Terms of the treaty
    2. Other territorial acquisitions
    3. Debate over treaty
      1. Anti-imperialist arguments
      2. Bryan's support
      3. Ratification
    4. Guerrilla war in Philippines
    5. Anti-Imperialist League
    6. Organizing acquisitions
      1. Philippines under Taft
      2. Civil government in Puerto Rico
      3. Insular Cases
    7. Situation in Cuba
      1. Leonard Wood as governor
      2. Yellow fever
      3. Cuban constitution
      4. Platt Amendment
      5. Insurrection of 1906
  6. Imperial rivalries in the Far East
    1. Japan's modernization
    2. Scramble for spheres of influence in China
    3. The Open-Door Policy
      1. British initiatives
      2. Unilateral action
      3. Policies of the Open-Door Note
      4. Reactions of other nations
    4. The Boxer Rebellion
  7. Roosevelt and diplomacy
    1. Background of Theodore Roosevelt (TR)
    2. Imperialism and the 1900 election
    3. TR as president
    4. The Panama Canal
      1. Need for the canal
      2. Negotiations with the British and French
      3. Difficulties with Colombia
      4. Panamanian revolution
      5. End to negotiations
      6. Construction of the canal
      7. Legacies of the incident
    5. Roosevelt Corollary
      1. Problems of debt collection
      2. Formulation of the corollary
    6. Russo-Japanese War
      1. Cause of war
      2. TR's efforts for peace
    7. United States's relations with Japan
      1. Respect for possessions
      2. Fears of the "yellow peril"
      3. Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907
    8. Other diplomatic efforts
      1. Algeciras Conference (1906)
      2. The "Great White Fleet"
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