Chapter 22: Gilded-age Politics And Agrarian Revolt

Chapter Outline

  1. Nature of Gilded-Age politics
    1. Paradoxical characteristics
      1. Stalemate by high participation
      2. "Real" and crucial issues
    2. Partisan politics
      1. Reasons for loyalty
        1. Patronage
        2. Entertainment
        3. Religious and ethnic bases
      2. Republican party
      3. Democratic party
      4. Religious and social bases
    3. National stalemate
      1. Even division between parties
      2. Deferential president
      3. Divided Congress
    4. State and local politics
      1. Active governments
      2. Regulation of corporations
      3. Judicial responses
        1. Initial support
        2. Opposition to state efforts
        3. Use of Fourteenth Amendment
  2. National politics, corruption, and reform
    1. Attitudes toward corruption
      1. Tolerance
      2. Business-politics connection
      3. "Spoils" of office
    2. Hayes administration
      1. His background and character
      2. Republican party split between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds
      3. Need for civil service reform
        1. Hayes's political debts
        2. Supporters of reform
      4. Hayes and merit appointments
      5. New York customs house
      6. Hayes's limited government activism
    3. Election of 1880
      1. Republican nomination
        1. Grant candidacy
        2. Garfield as a dark horse
      2. Democratic nomination
      3. Closest election results of the century
    4. The Garfield-Arthur administration
      1. Garfield's background
      2. His clash with Boss Platt over appointments
      3. His assassination
      4. Arthur's background
      5. His strong actions as president
        1. Prosecution of Star Route Frauds
        2. Veto of Rivers and Harbors bill
        3. Veto of Chinese Exclusion Act
        4. Support of Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883
        5. Support for tariff reduction
          1. Effects of treasury surplus
          2. Mongrel tariff of 1883
      6. Scurrilous campaign of 1884
        1. Reasons Arthur was not a candidate
        2. Republican nomination of Blaine and Logan
          1. Blaine's background
          2. Effect of Mulligan letters
          3. Emergence of Mugwumps
        3. Democratic nomination of Cleveland
          1. Cleveland's political background
          2. His illegitimate child
          3. "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
        4. Election results
    5. Cleveland's presidency
      1. Cleveland's view of the role of government
      2. Actions on civil service
      3. Stand for conservation
      4. Stand against veterans' pensions
      5. Effort to return Confederate battle flags
      6. Effort for railroad legislation
      7. Stand for tariff reform
      8. Election of 1888
        1. Cleveland renominated
        2. Republican nomination of Benjamin Harrison
        3. Campaign focuses on the tariff
        4. Personal attacks
        5. Results
    6. Republican reform under Harrison
      1. Harrison's bland personality
      2. His appointments
      3. Republican control of Congress, 1889-1891
      4. Passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890
      5. Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1890
      6. Effect of the McKinley Tariff, 1890
      7. Democratic congressional victories of 1890
        1. Ostensible reaction to heavy spending of Republicans
        2. Impact on the election of prohibition and social issues
  3. Problems of farmers
    1. Multiple farm interests
      1. Regions
      2. Size of farm
      3. Owners or tenants
    2. Worsening economic and social conditions
      1. Causes for declining agricultural prices
        1. Overproduction
        2. Worldwide competition
      2. Railroads as villains
      3. Effects of the tariff on farmers
    3. Patrons of Husbandry
      1. Isolation of farmers
      2. Development of the Grange
      3. Effects of Granger political activity
    4. Rise of the Greenback party
    5. Farmers' Alliances
      1. Membership
      2. Appeal of alliances
      3. Alliance programs
      4. Political activity
      5. Colorful leaders
    6. Formation of the Populist party
      1. Development of the party
      2. Platform stands
      3. Presidential nominees
      4. Victory of Cleveland in 1892
  4. The economy, silver, and politics
    1. The currency and money supply
      1. Deflation
      2. Metallic currency
      3. "Crime 1873"
    2. Depression of 1893
      1. Wall Street panic
      2. Unemployment and strikes
      3. Bank failures
      4. "Coxey's Army"
      5. Republican victory in 1894
    3. Currency issue
      1. Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act
      2. Demands for silver coinage
    4. Election of 1896
      1. McKinley and gold
      2. Bryan and silver
      3. Role of Populists
      4. Results
    5. A new era
      1. Dingley tariff
      2. Global concerns
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