Chapter 21: The Emergence Of Urban America

Chapter Outline

  1. Urbanization
    1. In westward movement
    2. Vertical growth
      1. Elevators
      2. Use of iron and steel
    3. Horizontal growth
      1. Mass transit
      2. Suburban segregation
    4. City life
      1. Exciting attraction
      2. Tenements
    5. Urban politics
      1. Political machines
      2. Services
      3. Graft
    6. Environmental effects
      1. Filth and disease
      2. “Sanitary” reformers
      3. Water pollution
  2. Immigration
    1. Sources of immigration
      1. Rural America
      2. Abroad
    2. Reasons for immigration to the United States
      1. Pull factors
      2. Push factors
    3. 1880s change in immigration
    4. Reception of immigrants
      1. Castle Garden
      2. Ellis Island
    5. Immigrant life
      1. Jobs
      2. Ethnic neighborhoods
    6. Nativist responses
      1. Objections to new immigrants
      2. American Protective Association
  3. Popular culture
    1. Distinctive urban culture
    2. Vaudeville
    3. Outdoor recreation
      1. Parks
      2. Tennis
      3. Bicycling
    4. Ethnic and working-class recreation
    5. Saloons
      1. Widespread popularity
      2. Hub of social life
        • Food and drink
        • Camaraderie
        • Services
      3. Male immigrants
      4. Critics of saloons
    6. Women’s work and leisure
      1. Married women
        1. Limited time after home work
        2. Public spaces for entertainment
      2. Single women
        1. Urban amusements
        2. Social restrictions
    7. Spectator sports
      1. Urban location
      2. Football
      3. Basketball
      4. Baseball
  4. Education and professions
    1. Growth of public schooling
    2. Vocational education
      1. Manual training in high schools
      2. Morrill Act and land-grant colleges
    3. Higher education
      1. Increase in college population
      2. Growth of elective system
      3. More opportunities for women
      4. Graduate education
        1. German model
        2. Johns Hopkins University
  5. Theories of society
    1. Darwinism and its impact
      1. Social Darwinism
        1. Herbert Spencer
        2. William Graham Sumner
      2. Lester Frank Ward and reform Darwinism
    2. Effects of Darwinism in academia
      1. Scientific history
      2. Emergence of sociology
      3. Changes in economics
      4. Pragmatism
        1. William James
        2. John Dewey and instrumentalism
    3. Literature
      1. Mark Twain
      2. Literary naturalism
        1. Frank Norris
        2. Stephen Crane
        3. Jack London
        4. Theodore Dreiser
    4. Social criticism
      1. Henry George and the single tax
      2. Thorstein Veblen and conspicuous consumption
  6. The religious response: social gospel
    1. Abandonment of inner-city churches
    2. Development of the institutional church
      1. YMCA and the Salvation Army
      2. Institutional churches
    3. Washington Gladden
    4. Walter Rauschenbusch
    5. Catholic responses to modernity
      1. Syllabus of Errors
      2. Rerum Novarum
  7. Early efforts at urban reform
    1. The settlement house movement
      1. Nature of settlement houses
      2. Social control
    2. Women’s jobs and rights
      1. Growth of the female labor force
      2. Women’s suffrage
        1. Conflicts in the movement
        2. Gains in the states
      3. Other women’s efforts
    3. Efforts to regulate business
      1. State regulatory commissions
      2. Development of substantive due process
      3. Supreme Court acceptance of the view
        1. In cases against regulatory units
        2. In cases against labor
      4. The status of laissez-faire at the end of the century
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