Chapter 20: Big Business And Organized Labor

Chapter Outline

  1. The rise of big business
    1. Causes of business growth
      1. Technological innovation
      2. Labor shortage
      3. Standardization
      4. Agricultural production
      5. Railroad network
      6. Inexpensive power
      7. Supportive government
    2. Second Industrial Revolution
      1. Transportation
      2. Electric power
      3. Scientific research
    3. Railroad building
      1. Functions of railroads
      2. The transcontinental plan
        1. Central Pacific
        2. Union Pacific
        3. Chinese labor
      3. Other transcontinentals
      4. Financing the railroads
        1. Early federal aid to the railroads
        2. Government returns from the financial assistance given
        3. Crédit-Mobilier fraud
      5. Jay Gould’s work
      6. Cornelius Vanderbilt
    4. New products and inventions
      1. Refrigerated railway car
      2. Flour milling
      3. Paper making
      4. Other improvements and innovations
      5. Development of the telephone
      6. Edison’s work with electricity
    5. Entrepreneurs of the era
      1. Rockefeller and the oil industry
        1. Background
        2. Concentration on refining and transportation
        3. Development of the trust
        4. Evolution of the holding company
      2. Andrew Carnegie and the “Gospel of Wealth”
        1. Background
        2. Concentration on steel
        3. Philosophy for big business
      3. J. P. Morgan and investment banking
        1. Background
        2. Concentration on railroad financing
        3. Control of organizations
        4. Consolidation of the steel industry
      4. Sears and Roebuck and retailing
        1. Montgomery Ward
        2. Retail by mail
        3. Creation of national market
  2. Developments in labor
    1. Wealth and income
      1. Standard of living
      2. Disparities between rich and poor
      3. Degree of social mobility
      4. Increase in manufacturing wages
      5. Living and working conditions
      6. Bureaucracy’s impersonal control
    2. Child labor
    3. Violence in union activity
      1. The Molly Maguires
      2. The railroad strike of 1877
      3. “Sand Lot” incident
    4. Efforts at union building
      1. National Labor Union
      2. Knights of Labor
        1. Early development
        2. Emphasis on the union
        3. Role of Terrence Powderly
        4. Victories of the Knights
        5. Haymarket Affair, 1886
        6. Lasting influence of the Knights of Labor
      3. American Federation of Labor
        1. Development of craft unions
        2. Role of Samuel Gompers
        3. Focus on the eight-hour day
        4. Growth of the union
    5. Violence in the 1890s
      1. Homestead Strike, 1892
      2. Pullman Strike, 1894
        1. Causes
        2. Role of the government
        3. Impact on Eugene V. Debs
    6. Socialism and American labor
      1. Daniel DeLeon and Eugene Debs
      2. Social Democratic party
        1. Early work
        2. Height of influence
      3. Rise of the IWW
        1. Sources of strength
        2. Revolutionary goals
        3. Causes for decline
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