Chapter 19: New Frontiers: South And West

Chapter Outline

  1. The New South
    1. Concept of the New South
      1. Henry Grady’s background
      2. His vision
      3. Other prophets of the New South Creed
    2. Economic growth
      1. Growth of cotton textile manufacturing
      2. Development of the tobacco industry
        1. John Ruffin Green and Bull’s Head
        2. Duke family
        3. Techniques used by Buck Duke for growth
        4. Creation and breakup of the American Tobacco Company
      3. Coal production
      4. Lumbering
      5. Other products
      6. Beginnings of petroleum and hydroelectric power
    3. Agriculture in the New South
      1. Limited diversity in agriculture
      2. Seaman Knapp and agricultural education
      3. Features of sharecropping and tenancy
      4. Impact of the crop lien system
    4. Tenantry’s environmental impact
      1. Soil depletion
      2. Soil erosion
    5. Role of the Bourbon Redeemers
      1. Nature of the Bourbons
      2. Bourbon economic policies
        1. Laissez-faire
        2. Retrenchment in government spending
        3. Convict lease system
        4. Repudiation of Confederate debts in some states
        5. Positive contributions of the Bourbons
    6. Role of the Democratic party in the New South
      1. Nature of the mongrel coalition
      2. Basis for independent political movements
      3. Efforts for Republican and independent collaboration
    7. Race relations
      1. Bourbon–African-American political compatibility
      2. Variety of color lines in social relations
      3. Disfranchisement of blacks
        1. Resurgent racism
          1. Resentment of black progress
          2. Repression
        2. Divisions caused by populism
        3. Techniques used
        4. Results
      4. Spread of segregation
        1. Railway cars
        2. Civil rights cases, 1883
        3. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
        4. Other areas
      5. Violence against blacks
    8. Black responses to racism
      1. Accommodation
      2. Black culture
        1. Churches
        2. Businesses
        3. Activism of Ida Wells
      3. Booker T. Washington
        1. Accommodation to segregation
        2. 1895 speech in Atlanta
      4. W. Du Bois
        1. Criticisms of Washington
        2. “Ceaseless agitation”
    9. Importance of the Bourbons
  2. The New West
    1. Views of western history
    2. The West after the Civil War
      1. Frontiers of settlement
      2. Great American Desert
    3. Migration to the West
      1. Native-born Americans
      2. Foreign immigrants
      3. Exodusters
        1. “Pap” Singleton
        2. Kansas and Oklahoma
        3. “Buffalo soldiers”
    4. The mining frontier
      1. Pattern of mining development
      2. Locations of major mineral discoveries
        1. California
        2. Colorado
        3. Nevada
      3. Mining and the environment
        1. Mass production
        2. Hydraulic mining
          1. Barren canyons
          2. Destruction of farmland
        3. Protests
          1. Lack of legislation
          2. Woodruff v. North Bloomfield
      4. Development of new states
    5. Displacement of the Indians
      1. Agreement for tribal limitations, 1851
      2. Conflicts that arose during the Civil War
      3. Establishment of the Indian Peace Commission, 1867
        1. Policy of two large reservations
        2. Agreements with the Indians in 1867 and 1868
      4. Continued resistance of Indians
        1. The Great Sioux War
        2. Massacre at Little Bighorn
        3. Conquest of Sioux and others
        4. Significance of Chief Joseph and Nez Percé
        5. Ghost Dance movement
      5. Demise of the buffalo
        1. Intensive harvesting
        2. Environmental causes
          1. Drought
          2. Competition from other animals
          3. Indian hunters
      6. Stirrings for reform in Indian policy
        1. Eastern view of Indian slaughter
        2. Role of Helen Hunt Jackson
      7. Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
        1. Concept of new policy
        2. Provisions of Dawes and subsequent acts
        3. Impact of new policy
    6. Cattle industry in the West
      1. Development of the open range
      2. War’s increased demand for beef
      3. Renewal of long drives after the Civil War
        1. Joseph McCoy
        2. Features of the cow town
      4. Trade with the East
        1. Refrigerated train cars
        2. Marketing campaigns
      5. Joseph Glidden and barbed wire
    7. The farming frontier
      1. Land policy after the Civil War
      2. Changed institutions beyond the 100th meridian
      3. Efforts for reclamation of arid lands
      4. An assessment of land distribution
      5. Farm life on the Great Plains
        1. Difficulties
        2. Importance of women
        3. Advances in equipment
        4. Bonanza farms
        5. Diversified small farms
    8. Violence on the frontier
      1. Functions of violence
        1. Resolve disputes
        2. Protection
        3. Masculine honor
      2. Variety of violent conflicts
    9. The end of the frontier
      1. 1890 census
      2. Frederick Jackson Turner
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