Chapter 18: Reconstruction: North And South

Chapter Outline

  1. Impact of the war
    1. Questions raised about the South
    2. Change in political power
      1. Friendly to business
      2. Accomplishments
        1. Morrill Tariff
        2. National Banking Act
        3. Homestead Act
    3. Effects on the South
      1. Physical and economic devastation
        1. Land values
        2. Crops
      2. Bitterness of whites
      3. The former slaves
        1. Citizenship and legal rights
        2. Landless
        3. Freedmen’s Bureau
  2. Developing a plan of Reconstruction
    1. During wartime
      1. Creation of West Virginia
      2. Military governors in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana
    2. Lincoln’s plan of Reconstruction
      1. Provisions
      2. Implementation in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana
      3. Congressional reaction
      4. Wade-Davis bill and its veto
      5. Lincoln’s final statement on Reconstruction
      6. Assassination of Lincoln
    3. Johnson and Reconstruction
      1. Johnson’s background
      2. Radicals’ perception of him
      3. Johnson’s plan for “restoration”
        1. Union indestructible
        2. Amnesty and pardon
        3. End of land distribution
        4. State governments
    4. Southern reactions
      1. Intransigence
      2. New governments
      3. Black codes
    5. Radicals and Reconstruction
      1. Motivation
      2. Conquered provinces argument
      3. Forfeited rights theory
    6. Johnson vs. Congress
      1. Veto of Freedmen’s Bureau
      2. Assault on Radicals
      3. Veto of Civil Rights Act overridden
      4. Freedmen’s Bureau bill passed over veto
    7. Fourteenth Amendment
      1. “Privileges and immunities” of citizens
      2. “Due process of law”
      3. “Equal protection of the laws”
  3. Congressional Reconstruction triumphant
    1. Actions in Congress early in 1867
      1. Extension of suffrage in the District of Columbia
      2. Requirement that new Congress convene
      3. Command of the Army Act
      4. Tenure of Office Act
      5. Military Reconstruction Act
        1. Key provisions for black suffrage and the Fourteenth Amendment
        2. Tennessee exempted
        3. Military districts
    2. Later Reconstruction Acts to plug loopholes
    3. Constitutional issues and the Supreme Court
      1. Congress limits the Supreme Court
      2. Texas v. White
    4. Effort to remove Johnson
      1. Impeachment
        1. Johnson’s actions
        2. Failure of first effort to impeach
        3. Violation of Tenure of Office Act
        4. Articles of impeachment
      2. Trial
        1. Arguments
        2. Acquittal
        3. Role of Edmund Ross
      3. Ramifications
        1. Crippled presidency
        2. Johnson’s loss in 1868
        3. Radical cause
    5. Radical rule in the South
      1. Readmission of southern states
      2. Duration of Radical control
      3. Role of the Union League prior to Reconstruction
  4. Reconstructed South
    1. African Americans
      1. Goals under freedom
        1. Equal opportunities
        2. Respect
        3. White resistance
      2. Black initiatives
        1. Military service
        2. Independent organizations
          1. Churches
          2. Clubs, lodges, associations
        3. Family life
        4. Schools
          1. Persisting white opposition
          2. Northern assistance
    2. Freedmen in politics
      1. Characteristics
      2. Conventions
      3. “Black Reconstruction”
    3. Carpetbaggers and scalawags
    4. Achievements of the Radical governments
      1. New state constitutions
        1. Black suffrage
        2. Civil rights
      2. Public schools
      3. Public works programs
      4. Corruption
  5. The Grant years
    1. The election of 1868
      1. Reasons for support of Grant
      2. The Grant ticket and platform
      3. Democratic programs and candidates
      4. Results
    2. The character of Grant’s leadership
    3. Proposal to pay the government debt
    4. Scandals
      1. Jay Gould’s effort to corner the gold market
      2. The Crédit-Mobilier exposure
      3. Other scandals
      4. Grant’s personal role in the scandals
    5. White Terror
      1. Objections to black participation in government
      2. The Ku Klux Klan
      3. Enforcement Acts to protect black voters
    6. The return of conservative control
      1. Reasons for abandonment of the Radical programs
      2. Duration of Radical control
    7. Reform and the election of 1872
      1. Liberal Republicans nominate Greeley in 1872
      2. Grant’s advantages
    8. Economic panic
      1. Causes for the depression
      2. Severity of the depression
    9. Democratic control of the House in 1874
    10. Reissue of greenbacks
    11. Resumption of specie payments approved in 1875
  6. Election of 1876
    1. Elimination of Grant and Blaine
    2. Republicans nominate Hayes
    3. Democrats nominate Tilden
    4. Views of the parties
    5. Results of the popular vote
    6. Role of the Electoral Commission
    7. G.Wormley House bargain
      1. Promises of each side
      2. Promises filled and unfilled
    8. The end of Reconstruction
      1. The crumbling of African American rights
      2. An enduring legacy
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