Chapter 17: The War Of The Union

Chapter Outline

  1. The coming of war
    1. Before war
      1. Outcome uncertain
      2. Lincoln’s inaugural
    2. Fort Sumter
      1. Resupply of fort
      2. South’s response
      3. Opening guns of war—4:30 a.m.,April 12, 1861
      4. Anderson’s surrender
    3. Lincoln’s initial steps of war
      1. Call for 75,000 militiamen
      2. Blockade of southern ports
    4. Further splits in Union
      1. Upper South secedes
      2. West Virginia formed
      3. Delaware remains in Union
      4. Border state divided
        1. Habeas corpus suspended to hold Maryland
        2. Federal forces in Kentucky
        3. Warfare in Missouri
      5. Brothers vs. brothers
        1. Robert Lee
        2. Southerners with Union
    5. The two sides
      1. Economic strengths
        1. Population
        2. Industry
        3. Transportation
      2. Military advantages
        1. Geography
        2. Naval power
  2. Early stages of war: 1861–1862
    1. First Battle of Bull Run
      1. Indecisive result
      2. Results in new strategies
        1. Union’s “Anaconda” plan
        2. Confederacy’s hope for stalemate and foreign intervention
    2. Naval action
      1. Ironclad ships
      2. Union seizures along southern coast
    3. Raising armies
      1. Northern efforts
        1. One million men
        2. Community and ethnic groups
      2. Confederacy efforts
        1. Volunteers
        2. Conscription
      3. Union conscription
      4. Opposition to conscription
    4. Confederate diplomacy
      1. Desire for foreign help
      2. Embargo on cotton
      3. Emissaries to Europe
      4. Trent affair
    5. The war in the West
      1. Effects on the region
        1. Settlement continued
        2. Gold and silver mining
        3. New states in Union
      2. Fighting on Kansas-Missouri border
      3. Indian involvement
      4. Grant moves on Forts Henry and Donelson
      5. Shiloh
        1. Costliest American battle yet
        2. Halleck replaces Grant
    6. McClellan’s peninsular campaign
      1. Indirect attack on Richmond
      2. Confederate diversion
      3. Lee assumes command
      4. Lee attacks McClellan
      5. Halleck named general-in-chief
    7. Second Bull Run
    8. Antietam
      1. Confederate assault
      2. Bloodiest day of war
      3. Confederate defeat
      4. Turning point of war
    9. Fredericksburg
    10. The end of 1862
      1. Deadlock
      2. Advantage to Union
  3. Blacks and women in war
    1. Emancipation
      1. Obstacles to emancipation
      2. Military liberation of slaves
      3. Intermediate moves
      4. Reasons for emancipation
      5. Emancipation Proclamation
      6. Effects
    2. Blacks in military
      1. All-black units
      2. National recruitment
      3. Combat
    3. Abolition of slavery
      1. State action
      2. Constitutional amendment
    4. D.Women and the war
      1. Service as nurses
        1. Dorothea Dix
        2. Clara Barton
      2. New responsibilities
        1. Businesses and farms
        2. Wartime losses
      3. Effects of war
  4. Government during the war
    1. Congressional power
      1. South to North shift
      2. Major legislation
    2. Wartime finances
      1. The Union
        1. Higher taxes
          1. Tariff
          2. Excise taxes
        2. Paper money
        3. Bonds
      2. Confederacy
        1. Ineffective taxation
        2. Paper money
    3. Wartime politics
      1. Union politics
        1. Pressure of the Radicals
        2. Democratic support
        3. Suspension of habeas corpus
          1. 14,000 arrests
          2. Vallandigham case
        4. Campaign of 1864
          1. Democratic position
          2. Radicals
          3. Results
      2. Confederate politics
        1. Electoral system
        2. Dissent
          1. Unionists
          2. States’ rights
    4. D.War and the environment
      1. Animal deaths
        1. Horses
        2. Hogs
      2. Bridges and levees lost
      3. Malaria
      4. Erosion
  5. Tide turns against Confederacy
    1. Battle of Chancellorsville
      1. Largest Union army yet
      2. Death of Jackson
      3. Lee defeats Hooker
        1. Peak of Lee’s career
        2. Lee’s last major win
    2. Grant’s Vicksburg victory
    3. Gettysburg
      1. Lee’s invasion
      2. Pickett’s charge
      3. Confederate defeat
      4. Cemetery established
    4. Third major Union victory of 1863: Chattanooga
  6. Defeat of Confederacy
    1. Grant’s strategy
    2. Union on the offensive
      1. Grant pursues Lee in Virginia
      2. Sherman moves across South
        1. Fighting “hostile people”
        2. Few atrocities
    3. Lincoln’s second inaugural
    4. Appomattox
    5. Surrender
      1. Lee surrenders to Grant (April 9, 1865)
      2. Johnston surrenders to Sherman
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