Chapter 13: An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, And Reform

Chapter Outline

  1. Antebellum religion
    1. Effects of Enlightenment
      1. Deism
        1. Roots in rationalism and Calvinism
        2. Nature of the beliefs
      2. Unitarianism and Universalism
        1. Nature of the beliefs
        2. William Ellery Channing
        3. Universalism
    2. The Second Great Awakening
      1. Origins of revivalism
      2. The frontier phase
        1. Camp meetings
        2. Reception among sects
          1. Presbyterians
          2. Baptists
          3. Methodists
        3. Black revivals
      3. “Burned-over District”
        1. Charles Grandison Finney
        2. Oberlin College
      4. Mormon church
        1. Roles of Joseph Smith, Jr., and Brigham Young
        2. Movement West
  2. Romanticism in America
    1. Nature of the romantic revolt
    2. Transcendentalism as a romantic expression
      1. Nature of transcendentalism
      2. Roots of transcendentalism
      3. The role of Ralph Waldo Emerson
      4. The role of Henry David Thoreau
      5. The impact of transcendentalism
  3. The flowering of American literature
    1. Nathaniel Hawthorne
    2. New England poets
    3. Emily Dickinson
    4. Edgar Allan Poe
    5. Herman Melville
    6. Walt Whitman
    7. Feminine fiction
    8. The popular press
      1. Impact of advances in printing technology
      2. Daily papers
  4. Education
    1. Demography
      1. Level of literacy
      2. Rural settlement patterns
    2. Early public schools
      1. Rising demand in 1830s
      2. Work of Horace Mann
      3. North Carolina leadership
      4. Hindrances
    3. Higher education
      1. Post-Revolutionary surge in colleges
      2. Education for women
  5. Movements for reform
    1. Roots of reform
    2. Varieties of reform
    3. Temperance
      1. Heavy consumption of alcohol in the United States
      2. Arguments for temperance
      3. Early efforts at reform
      4. Development of the American Temperance Union, 1833
      5. State actions restricting alcohol
    4. Prison reform
      1. Growth of public institutions to treat social ills
      2. Prevention and rehabilitation versus punishment for crime
      3. Auburn prison system (1816)
      4. Elimination of prison for debtors
    5. Reform in treatment of the insane
      1. Early state institutions for the insane
      2. Work of Dorothea Lynde Dix
    6. Crusade for women’s rights
      1. Status of women in the antebellum period
      2. Seneca Falls Conference, 1848
      3. Hindrances to success
      4. Evidences of success
      5. Women in education, nursing, and other professions
    7. Utopian communities
      1. Proliferation of utopian communities
      2. Nature of the Shaker communities
      3. Development and contributions of the Oneida Community
      4. Concept of New Harmony
      5. The importance of Brook Farm
      6. The impact of the utopian communities
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