Chapter 6: The American Revolution

Chapter Outline

  1. Start of the revolution in 1776
    1. The military situation
      1. British
      2. American
    2. In New York and New Jersey
      1. Battle of Long Island
      2. Washington’s gamble at Trenton
      3. American success at Princeton
    3. Results of 1776
      1. Missed opportunity for the British
      2. American war of attrition
  2. American society in wartime
    1. Divisions among the people
      1. Loyalists or Tories
        1. Small minority
        2. Support in seaports and backcountry
        3. Cause of British frustration
      2. Patriots or Whigs
        1. Militia
        2. Continental army
    2. Problems of finance, supply, and health
      1. Revenue
      2. Arsenal at Springfield
      3. Small army
      4. Impact of smallpox
  3. The war continues
    1. Campaigns of 1777
      1. British plans
      2. Howe’s capture of Philadelphia
      3. Washington at Valley Forge
      4. Burgoyne defeated by Gates at Saratoga
    2. Foreign involvement in war
      1. French enter war
        1. French-American agreements
        2. Spain allies with France
      2. British attack Dutch
    3. 1778
      1. British concessions
      2. Clinton replaces Howe
      3. Washington at Valley Forge
      4. Von Steuben and military training
      5. Spring revival
      6. Stalemate
    4. D.War in the West
      1. Victories of George Rogers Clark in Illinois in 1778
      2. Sullivan and Clinton destroy Iroquois in 1779
      3. Daniel Boone in Kentucky
      4. Defeat of Cherokees
    5. Southern campaign
      1. British motives and results
      2. Capture of Savannah and Charleston
      3. Cornwallis’s victory at Camden
      4. Turning point at King’s Mountain
      5. Morgan’s victory at Cowpens
      6. Battle of Guilford Courthouse
      7. Yorktown, October 1781
        1. Nature of campaign
        2. Defeat of Cornwallis
  4. Peace negotiations
    1. Negotiators
    2. Nature of the problems with France and with Spain
    3. American initiatives with Britain
    4. Terms of the Peace of Paris, September 3, 1783
  5. The Revolution at home
    1. Revolutionary concepts developed in America
      1. Lack of a feudal tradition
      2. Republican governmental ideas
    2. Changes in state governments
      1. Concept of a written constitution
      2. Concept of a constitutional convention
      3. Other principles in new state governments
    3. Articles of Confederation
      1. Difficulties in obtaining ratification
      2. Powers of central government under the Articles
    4. Impact on equality in the colonies
      1. On lower socioeconomic groups
        1. Ending habits of deference to upper classes
        2. Broader voting and officeholding qualifications
        3. Limited land confiscation and land grants
      2. On slavery
        1. States’ control of slave trade
        2. Role of blacks in the war
          1. Lord Dunmore and the Ethiopian Regiment
          2. Blacks in American army
        3. Antislavery efforts
          1. Emancipation by northern states
          2. Manumission by some southerners
      3. On women
        1. Involvement in prewar boycotts and in providing wa rtime supplies
        2. Limited gains in law for women
      4. On religion
        1. Removal of tax support for religion in various states
        2. Development of some national church organizations
  6. An American culture
    1. Independence Day
    2. First new nation
    3. Nation’s special mission
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