Chapter 5: From Empire To Independence

Chapter Outline

  1. Impact of the British victory in the Great War for Empire
    1. Situation after the British victory over France
    2. Rumblings of American nationalism
    3. Awareness of distinctions between British and American military systems
    4. Retaliation of the British government for colonial actions during the war
      1. Imperial forces won the war while colonists traded with the enemy
      2. Efforts to use writs of assistance to stop illegal trade
    5. Colonists used the war to exact concessions from their governors
    6. Problems of managing defense in the newly captured lands to the north and east
  2. British politics and the colonies
    1. Government of George III
      1. Whiggish nature
      2. Intrigue and instability
    2. Proclamation Line of 1763
    3. Grenville program and effects
      1. Revenues for troops in the West
      2. Making colonists pay
        1. Vice admiralty court
        2. Sugar Act, 1764
        3. Currency Act, 1764
        4. Stamp Act, 1765
        5. Quartering Act
    4. Ideology of colonial reaction
      1. Radical whiggery
      2. British tyranny
      3. “No taxation without representation”
    5. Stamp Act crisis
      1. Colonial demonstrations
      2. Idea of colonial unity
      3. Stamp Act Congress, October 1765
      4. New Rockingham ministry
      5. Repeal of tax, 1776
      6. Declaratory Act, March 1766
  3. Increasing tensions with British
    1. Townshend duties
    2. Colonial reactions
      1. John Dickinson’s opposition
      2. Sam Adams
        1. Sons of Liberty
        2. Circular letter with James Otis
      3. Boston Massacre
    3. Townshend duties repealed except tax on tea
    4. Two years of relative peace
    5. Backcountry protests
      1. Vermont created
      2. Paxton Boys of Pennsylvania
      3. South Carolina Regulators
      4. North Carolina protests
  4. Crisis approaching
    1. More colonial protests
      1. Gaspee burned, 1772
      2. Committees of Correspondence formed, after November 1772
      3. Boston Tea Party
        1. Tea Act of 1773
        2. Colonists’ protests
        3. Effects
    2. British respond with Coercive Acts, 1774
      1. Port of Boston closed
      2. Trials of officials transferred to England
      3. New quartering act for soldiers
      4. Massachusetts’s Council and law enfo rcement offices made ap p o i n t ive
      5. No town meetings
    3. Quebec Act, July 1774
    4. First Continental Congress, September 1774
      1. Rejects plan of union
      2. Adopts Declaration of American Rights
      3. Endorses Continental Association
        1. Economic self-sufficiency
        2. Boycott of British goods
        3. Popular support
    5. British response
      1. Massachusetts in rebellion
      2. Restrictions on trade
      3. Conciliatory Resolution
    6. Patrick Henry and war
  5. Conflict spreads
    1. Colonists take the initiative
    2. Lexington and Concord
    3. Beginning of Revolutionary War
    4. Second Continental Congress convenes, 1775
    5. Fall of Fort Ticonderoga
    6. Continental army established
    7. Battle of Bunker Hill
    8. Olive Branch Petition and Declaration for Taking Up Arms
    9. Authorized attack on Québec
      1. Smallpox
      2. Defeat for Revolutionaries
    10. Growth of Congress
    11. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
  6. Declaration of Independence
    1. Role of Jefferson
    2. Local declarations of independence
    3. George Mason’s influence
    4. Contract theory of government
    5. Causes of revolution
      1. Multiple explanations
      2. British sovereignty vs. American rights
      3. Individual motives
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