Chapter 2: Britain And Its Colonies

Chapter Outline

  1. English background to colonization
    1. Unique features of English development
      1. Mixtures of languages and religions
      2. Safety of isolation
      3. Fading of feudalism
      4. Class structure
    2. Government
      1. Local self-rule
      2. Power of Parliament
      3. Common Law
    3. The economy
      1. Joint-stock companies
      2. Population explosion
      3. Migrations
    4. The monarchy under the Stuarts
      1. James I and “divine right”
      2. Charles I and Parliament
      3. Civil War
      4. Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649–1660
      5. Restoration of Charles II, 1660
      6. Glorious Revolution of 1689
      7. 1701 Act of Settlement
  2. The early English colonies on the Chesapeake
    1. Patterns of English colonization
      1. Expectation of stockholders
      2. Example of Ireland
      3. Migrants not settlers
    2. Settlement of Virginia
      1. Settlement at Jamestown, 1607
      2. Roles of John Smith and Pocahontas
      3. Powhatan Confederacy
      4. Early difficulties
      5. Importance of tobacco
      6. The headright policy
      7. General Assembly of Virginia
      8. Conflicts with Indians
      9. Becomes a royal colony in 1624
      10. Growth and stability under William Berkeley
    3. Bacon’s Rebellion
      1. Tensions, discontents, and hatreds
      2. Role of Nathaniel Bacon
      3. Results
    4. Maryland
      1. Proprietary colony
      2. Importance of Catholics
  3. Colonial New England
    1. Compared to Chesapeake colonies
      1. Middle class
      2. More women
      3. Healthier climate
      4. Holy settlement
    2. Settlement at Plymouth
      1. Pilgrims
      2. Separatists
      3. The Mayflower
      4. Settlement of Plymouth
      5. Mayflower Compact
    3. Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1630
      1. Role of the Puritans
      2. John Winthrop
      3. Evolution of government
    4. Creation of Rhode Island
      1. Views of Roger Williams
      2. Religious freedom
      3. Controversy over Anne Hutchinson
    5. Origins of Connecticut, 1637
    6. Settlement of Maine and New Hampshire
  4. New England Indians
    1. Cultural interactions
      1. Strategies of Indians
      2. English objectives
    2. Indian Society
      1. Dependence of Nature
      2. Religion
      3. Epidemics
    3. Pequot War
      1. Background
      2. Massacre of Indians
    4. King Philip’s War
  5. The English Civil War and the colonies
    1. Reduced immigration
    2. English neglect of colonies
    3. Formation of New England Confederation, 1643
    4. Controversy over toleration in Maryland
    5. Cromwell’s defense of the colonies
    6. Limited impact of the Restoration
  6. New proprietary colonies
    1. Carolinas settlements and governments
      1. North Carolina’s development
      2. South Carolina
        1. Impact of West Indian planters
        2. Government and religious toleration
        3. Economic development
    2. Southern Indian trade
      1. Geographic extent of and material basis for trade
      2. Troubles arising from Indian trade
      3. Trade in Indian slaves
      4. Conflicts with Indians
        1. Tuscarora War
        2. Yemassee War
    3. New York
      1. Originally a Dutch colony
      2. Patroon system
      3. British conquest, 1664
      4. Dutch political principles
    4. Iroquois League
      1. Formation of the Iroquois League
      2. Iroqois life
      3. Development of warfare among the tribes
      4. Iroquois expansion and its effects
      5. Evolution of neutrality in the 1700s
    5. New Jersey, a proprietary grant from the Duke of York
    6. Pennsylvania’s development
      1. Problems of the Quakers
      2. Role of William Penn
      3. Development of the colony
      4. Government and Indian relations
    7. Delaware granted to Penn, but operated separately
    8. Experiment of Georgia, 1733
      1. Philanthropic purpose
      2. Defensive role
  7. General features of English settlement
    1. Effect of lack of centralized direction
    2. Role of private investment
    3. Welcome of diverse settlers
    4. Importance of self-government
    5. Compact pattern of settlement
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