Chapter 1: The Collision Of Cultures

Chapter Outline

  1. Possible origins of the first Americans
    1. Siberian
    2. Southwestern Europe
  2. Indian culture before Columbus
    1. Earliest cultures
      1. Hunters and gatherers
      2. Villagers
      3. Farmers
    2. Mayan, Aztec, and Incan cultures
    3. Major Indian cultures in the area of the United States after about 1,000 B.C.
      1. Adena-Hopewell peoples of the Ohio Valley (800 B.C.–A.600)
      2. Mississippian cultures of the Mississippi River Valley (A.600–1500)
      3. Pueblo-Hohokam-Anasazi cultures of the Southwest
  3. European discovery of the New World
    1. Early Norse contacts
    2. Changes in modern Europe
      1. Revival of learning
      2. Progress in navigation
      3. Growth of trade and towns
      4. New nation-states
    3. Voyages of Columbus
    4. Biological exchange
      1. Animals
      2. Plants
      3. Devices
      4. Diseases
    5. Early exploration by England and Portugal
      1. John Cabot
      2. Ferdinand Magellan
  4. Spanish conquest of the New World
    1. Clash of cultures
      1. Indian weaknesses
        1. susceptible to disease
        2. disunity
        3. poor transportation
      2. Spanish advantages
        1. accepted risk
        2. ships
        3. better military tools
        4. horses
    2. Cortés and other conquistadores
      1. Cortés’s conquest of Mexico
      2. System of encomienda
      3. Roles of church and crown
    3. Spanish exploration and early settlement in North America
      1. Geographic area of control
      2. Interactions with Indian culture
      3. Purposes of settlements
        1. obtain wealth
        2. convert Indians
        3. provide defense
    4. Spanish patterns in the southwestern United States
      1. Use of religion in colonial control
      2. Role of the Franciscans
      3. Control by Juan de Ońate
      4. New Mexico as a royal province
      5. Rebellion of Popé
    5. Horses
      1. Indian acquisition
      2. Ecological effects
      3. Economic effects
      4. Negative consequences
  5. Impact of the Protestant Reformation on Europe
    1. Martin Luther’s initial leadership
    2. John Calvin’s role
    3. Impact of the Reformation in England
      1. Henry VIII
      2. Church of England
  6. French, Dutch, and English rivalry with the Spanish in North America
    1. Verrazzano and Cartier
    2. Rebellion of the Netherlands and work of the Dutch “Sea Beggars”
    3. English efforts
      1. Elizabethan “Sea Dogges”
      2. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588
      3. Early attempts at English colonization
      4. Raleigh’s “Lost Colony”
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