Stephen Jay Gould

American paleontologist, essayist, and educator. Raised in New York City, Gould graduated from Antioch College and received a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1967. He then joined the faculty of Harvard University as a professor of geology and zoology and taught courses in paleontology, biology, and the history of science. Gould demystified science for lay readers in the essays he wrote for a regular column in Natural History magazine; many of these were collected in Ever Since Darwin (1977), Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes (1983), and Eight Little Piggies (1993). Gould's The Mismeasure of Man (1981), which questioned traditional ways of testing intelligence, won the National Book Critics Circle Award for essays and criticism. A renowned neo-Darwinian, Gould championed the theory of evolution throughout his career; his last book on this subject, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, appeared in 2002. See also amnh.org/science/bios/gould.