American essayist, novelist, and social activist. Baldwin was born in Harlem, became a minister at fourteen, and grew to maturity in an America plaguel by racism and homophobia. He moved to Paris in 1948 believing that only outside the United States could he be read as "not merely a Negro; or, even, merely a Negro writer." Both his first published novel,
Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), and his first play, The Amen Corner (1955), are autobiographical explorations of race and identity. Although he would write other plays, Baldwin concentrated his energies on essays and novels such as Giovanni's Room (1956) and Another Country (1962). His stories are collected in Going to Meet the Man (1965), and his essay collections, including Notes of a Native Son (1955) and The Fire Next Time (1963), demonstrate Baldwin's skills as a social critic. See also egs.edu/library/james-baldwin/biography.