EMILY MARTIN, a professor of anthropology at New York University, is founding editor of the magazine Anthropology Now and has written extensively about intersections of culture and science. Her 2007 book Bipolar Expeditions won a prize for feminist anthropological research. This article first appeared in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society in 1991 with the subtitle “How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles.” It has become a classic reading in medical anthropology.