NICHOLAS CARR is the author of The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (2011) and The Big Switch: Rewiring the World from Edison to Google (2008). His books about technology, economy, and culture have sparked much conversation on those topics, and the catchphrase “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” comes from his 2008 essay in the Atlantic. He blogs at and tweets @roughtype. This essay comes from his latest book, The Glass Cage: Automation and Us (2014).