Research / Documentation

Developing a Research Plan

To do research well—to find appropriate sources and use them wisely—you need to develop a research plan. This chapter will help you establish such a plan and then get started.

Establishing a Schedule

Doing research is complex and time-consuming, so you'll want to start by establishing a schedule, perhaps using this form:

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Considering the Rhetorical Situation

Once you have a schedule, consider your purpose, your audience, and the rest of your rhetorical situation:

 PURPOSE:

Is this project part of an assignment, and does it specify a purpose? If not, what is your purpose?

 AUDIENCE:

To whom are you writing? Is there any background information you'll need to provide? What kinds of evidence will your readers find persuasive?

 GENRE:

Are you writing a report? An argument? Something else? What are the source requirements of your genre?

 STANCE:

What is your attitude toward your topic? How do you want to come across?

 MEDIA / DESIGN:

What medium will you use? Print? Spoken? Electronic? Will you need to use any visuals?

Coming Up with a Topic

If you need to choose a topic, consider your interests. What do you want to learn about? What community, national, or global issues do you care about? If your topic is assigned, make sure you understand it. Does it ask you to analyze,  COMPARE,  EVALUATE,  SUMMARIZE? If the assignment offers broad guidelines, define your topic within those constraints.

Narrow the topic

Try to narrow your topic so that it is specific enough for you to research and cover in a paper. In addition, a limited topic will be more likely to interest your audience than a broad subject. For example, it's much harder to write well about "the environment" than it is to address a topic that covers a single environmental issue.

Think about what you know about your topic

Chances are you already know something about your topic.  FREEWRITING,  LISTING,  CLUSTERING, and  LOOPING are all good ways of tapping that knowledge. Consider where you might find more information about it: In a textbook? On the news? On websites? From someone you know?

Doing Some Preliminary Research

To define the focus for your research, you first need to explore sources that will provide an overview of your topic. One way to begin is to look at reference works such as general or discipline-specific encyclopedias. The latter are generally more helpful because they usually present subjects in much greater depth and provide more scholarly references that might suggest starting points for your research. At this stage, pay close attention to the terms used to discuss your topic. These terms could be keywords that you can use to research your topic in library catalogs, in databases, and on the Web.

Keeping a Working Bibliography

A working bibliography is a record of all the sources you consult. The following list contains most of the basic information you'll want to include for each source in your working bibliography. Go to www.wwnorton.com/college/english/write/fieldguide for templates you can use to keep track of this information.

Information for a Working Bibliography

FOR A BOOK

Library call number
Author(s) or editor(s)
Title and subtitle
Publication information: city, publisher, year of publication
Other information: edition, volume number, translator, and so on
If your source is an essay in a collection, include its author, title, and page numbers.

FOR AN ARTICLE IN A PERIODICAL

Author(s)
Title and subtitle
Name of periodical
Volume number, issue number, date
Page numbers

FOR A WEB SOURCE

URL
DOI if provided
Author(s) or editor(s) if available
Name of site
Sponsor of site
Date site was first posted or last updated
Date you accessed site
If the source is an article or book reprinted on the Web, include its title, the title and publication information of the periodical or book where it was first published, and any page numbers.

FOR A SOURCE FROM AN ELECTRONIC DATABASE

Publication information for the source
Name of database
Item number, if there is one
Name of subscription service and its URL
Library where you accessed source
Date you accessed source

Coming Up with a Research Question

Once you've surveyed the territory of your topic, you may find that your understanding of your topic has become broader and deeper, or that you now have a better topic than the one you started with. In any case, you need to come up with a research question—a specific question that you will then answer through your research.

To write a research question, review your analysis of the  RHETORICAL SITUATION, and then generate a list of questions beginning with What? When? Where? Who? How? Why? Would? Could? and Should? For example, suppose your tentative topic is "the potential environmental effects of increasing the use of gasoline mixed with ethanol." Your questions might include

How much energy does producing ethanol require?

Why do some environmental groups oppose the use of ethanol?

Should ethanol use be increased?

Select one question from your list, and use it to guide your research.

Drafting a Tentative Thesis

Next, try to answer your research question as a tentative  THESIS. Although your tentative thesis probably will change as you learn more about your subject, a thesis allows you to move forward by clarifying your purpose. Here are two tentative thesis statements on the previous topic of ethanol:

Producing ethanol uses more fossil fuels than burning it saves.

The federal government should require the use of ethanol as a gasoline additive.

As with a research question, a tentative thesis should guide your research efforts—but be ready to revise it as you learn still more about your topic.

Creating a Rough Outline

After you've created a tentative thesis, write out a rough  OUTLINE for your research paper. Your rough outline can be a simple list of topics you want to explore. As you read your sources, you can use your outline to keep track of what you need to find and where the information you do find fits into your argument.

Keeping Track of Your Sources

  • Staple together copies and printouts of print materials.
  • Store website URLs as favorites (in Internet Explorer) or bookmarks (in Firefox).
  • Label everything with the source's author and title.
  • Highlight sections you plan to use.
  • Use your rough outline to keep track of what you've got.
  • Keep everything in a file folder or box.


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Finding Sources

This chapter offers guidelines for locating a range of sources—print and online, general and specialized, published and firsthand. Keep in mind that finding and evaluating sources usually take place simultaneously.

Kinds of Sources

Primary and secondary sources

Primary sources include historical documents, literary works, diaries, letters, and lab studies, as well as any original research you do. Secondary sources include scholarly works, reviews, biographies, textbooks, and other works that discuss primary sources.

Print and online sources

Many print sources are also available on the Web, so it's likely that you'll search for most sources online, through your library's website. In general, there are four kinds of sources you'll want to consult:

  • General reference works for encyclopedias, dictionaries, and the like
  • The library catalog for books
  • Indexes and databases for periodicals
  • Search engines and subject directories for material on the Web

Look at a search page on your library's catalog, which will probably allow you to search by title, author, subject, call number, and keyword.

Searching Electronically

When you're searching for subjects electronically, you'll need to come up with keywords that will focus your searches on the information you need. Specific commands vary among search engines and within databases, but here are some of the most common ones:

  • Type quotation marks around words to search for an exact phrase.
  • Type AND to find sources that include more than one keyword, OR if you're looking for sources that include one of several terms, and NOT to find sources without a certain word.
  • Type an asterisk—or some other symbol—to search for words in different forms.

Reference Works

The reference section of your school's library is the place to find encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works in print. Many of these sources are also online. Remember, though, that reference works will give you only an overview of your topic.

General reference works

Consult encyclopedias for general background information, dictionaries for definitions, atlases for maps and geographic data, and almanacs for statistics and other data on current events.

Specialized reference works

Specialized reference works provide in-depth information on a single field or topic.

Bibliographies

Bibliographies provide an overview of what has been published on a topic. Check with a reference librarian for bibliographies on your research topic.

Books/Searching the Library Catalog

The library catalog—your primary source for finding books—can usually be accessed through the library's website. You can search by author, title, subject, or keyword.

Periodicals/Searching Indexes and Databases

To find journal and magazine articles, you will need to search periodical indexes and databases, many of which are online. Indexes provide listings of articles organized by topics; databases provide the full texts. Keep in mind that the more authoritative databases are available only by subscription and so must be accessed through a library.

Print indexes

You'll need to consult print indexes to find articles published before the 1980s. Here are a few useful ones:

The Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (print, 1900-; online, 1983-)
The New York Times Index (print and online, 1851-)
Humanities Index (print, 1974-; online, 1984-)
General Science Index (print, 1978-; online, 1984-)

General electronic indexes and databases

A reference librarian can help you determine which databases will be most helpful to you, but here are some useful ones:

Academic Search Complete
EBSCOhost
FirstSearch
InfoTrac
JSTOR
LexisNexis Academic Universe
ProQuest
SIRS Researcher

Single-subject indexes and databases

These are just a sample of what's available; check with a reference librarian for indexes and databases in the subject you're researching.

America: History and Life
BIOSIS Previews
ERIC
Historical Abstracts
Humanities International Index
MLA International Bibliography
PsychINFO

Web-based indexes and databases

The following are freely available on the Internet:

Infomine
Librarians' Internet Index
The World Wide Web Virtual Library
CSA Discovery Guides
The Voice of the Shuttle: Web Site for Humanities Research
The Library of Congress
JURIST

The Web

Websites are different from other sources in several ways: (1) they often provide entire text; (2) their content varies greatly in its reliability, and (3) they are not stable. Anyone an post texts on the Web, so you need to evaluate carefully what you find there.

There are several ways of searching the Web with a search engine:

  • Keyword searches and Subject directories, via Google or Yahoo! for example.
  • Metasearches, using a search engine such as Dogpile.
  • Academic searches, using a search engine such as Google Scholar.

Doing Field Research

Sometimes you'll need to go beyond the information in published sources. Three kinds of field research to consider are interviews, observations, and questionnaires or surveys.

Interviewing experts

Some kinds of writing—a profile of a living person, for instance—almost require that you conduct an interview. You can conduct interviews face-to-face, over the telephone, or by mail or email. In general, use interviews to find information you can't find elsewhere.

Before the interview
  1. Email or phone to ask for an appointment and state your  PURPOSE.
  2. Send a note or email confirming the time and place. If you wish to record the interview, ask for permission to do so.
  3. Write out questions. Avoid those that are likely to elicit only a yes or a no.
At the interview
  1. Record the full name of the person you interview, along with the date, time, and place of the interview.
  2. Take notes, even if you are recording the interview.
  3. Don't take more time than you agreed to beforehand, and end by saying thank you.
After the interview
  1. Flesh out your notes with details soon after the interview.
  2. Be sure to send a thank-you note or email.
Observation

Some writing projects are based on information you get by observing something.

Before observing
  1. Think about your research  PURPOSE: What are you looking for?
  2. If necessary, set up an appointment.
While observing
  1. Divide each page of your notepaper down the middle vertically and write only on the left side; reserve the right side for information you will fill in later.
  2. Note  DESCRIPTIVE DETAILS about the setting—what you see, hear, and so on.
  3. Describe who is there, what they are doing, what they look like, and what they say.
After observing
  1. Use the right side of your pages to note additional details.
  2. Analyze your notes, looking for patterns.
Questionnaires and surveys

Written or online questionnaires and surveys can provide information or opinions from a large number of people.

Define your goal

The goal of a questionnaire or survey should be limited, and every question should contribute to your research question.

Define your sample

A survey gets responses from a representative sample of the whole group. Ask yourself these questions:

  1. Who should answer the questions? The people you contact should represent the whole population.
  2. How many people make up a representative sample? In general, the larger your sample, the more the answers will reflect those of the whole group.
Decide on a medium

Will you ask the questions face-to-face? Over the phone? On a website? By mail?

Design good questions

Some typical question types include multiple choice, rating scale ("on a scale from 1 to 10"), agreement scale ("strongly agree, agree ... strongly disagree), and open-ended.

Include an introduction

State your survey's purpose and how the results will be used.

Test the survey or questionnaire

Ask three or four people who are part of your target population to answer your questions.



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Evaluating Sources

This chapter presents advice on evaluating sources—first to determine whether a source is useful for your purposes and then to read with a critical eye the ones you choose.

Considering the Reliability of Print and Online Sources

Anyone who wishes to post something on the Web can do so. In addition, Web sources come and go and are easily changed. So print sources (including journals available online) are always more stable and often more trustworthy.

Considering Whether a Source Serves Your Purpose

Think about your  PURPOSE

Are you trying to persuade readers? To inform them? Do you need sources representing various stances, or sources that are more factual? Reconsider your  AUDIENCE. What kinds of sources will they find persuasive? Following are some questions that can help you select useful sources:

  • Is it relevant?
  • What are the author's credentials?
  • What is the  STANCE?
  • Who is the publisher?
  • If it's a website, who is the sponsor?
  • What is the level?
  • When was it published?
  • Is it available?
  • Does it include other useful information?

Reading Sources with a Critical Eye

  • What  ARGUMENTS does the author make?
  • How persuasive do you find the argument?
  • What is the author's  STANCE?
  • Does the publisher bring a certain stance to the work?
  • Do you recognize ideas you've run across in other sources?
  • Does this source support or challenge your own position—or does it do both?
  • What can you tell about the intended  AUDIENCE and  PURPOSE?


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Synthesizing Ideas

When you synthesize, you bring together material from two or more sources in order to generate new information or to support a new perspective—to determine what you want to say. This chapter focuses on how to synthesize ideas you find in other sources as the basis for your own ideas.

Reading for Patterns and Connections

When you synthesize, you group similar bits of information together, looking for patterns or themes and trying to identify the key points. Here are some tips for doing so:

  • Take notes and jot down a  SUMMARY of each source.
  • Read all your sources with an open mind. Pay attention to your first reactions, and try to think creatively.

Ask yourself these questions about your sources:

  • What sources make the strongest arguments? Do some arguments or themes recur in several sources?
  • Which arguments do you agree with? Disagree with? Do you need to acknowledge any of the latter in your text?
  • Are any data or experts cited in more than one source?
  • How have your sources affected your thinking on your topic? Your research question?
  • Have you found the information you need that will achieve your  PURPOSE, appeal to your  AUDIENCE, and suit your  GENRE and  MEDIUM?

The ideas and insights that emerge from this questioning will become the basis for your own ideas, and for what you have to say about the topic.

Entering the Conversation

As you read and think about your topic, you will come to understand the concepts and controversies relating to your topic—and you'll become aware that there's a larger conversation going on. You will also begin to see your own place in that conversation, to discover your own ideas, your own stance on your topic. Remember that your  STANCE needs to be clear: simply stringing together the words and ideas of others isn't enough. You need to show readers how your source materials relate to one another and to your thesis.



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Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

When you work with the ideas and words of others, you need to clearly distinguish those ideas and words from your own and give credit to their authors. This chapter will help you with the specifics of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing source materials.

Taking Notes

When you find material you think will be useful, take careful notes. Write down enough information so that you will be reminded of the main points and can find the information later on.

  • Use index cards, a computer file, or a notebook, labeling each entry with the author, title, and the pages or the URL or DOI.
  • Take notes in your own words, and use your own sentence patterns. If you make a note that is a detailed  PARAPHRASE, label it as such.
  • If you find wording that you'd like to quote, enclose it in quotation marks. Be careful not to accidentally  PLAGIARIZE your sources.
  • Label each note with a subject heading.

Deciding Whether to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize

When it comes time to  DRAFT, you'll need to decide whether to quote, paraphrase, or summarize the sources you've found. You might follow this rule of thumb:  QUOTE texts when the wording is worth repeating or when you want to cite the exact words of a known authority on your topic.  PARAPHRASE sources that are not worth quoting but contain details you need to include.  SUMMARIZE longer passages whose main points are important but whose details are not.

Quoting

When you quote, you need to reproduce the source exactly, though you can omit unnecessary details (with ellipses) or make it fit smoothly into your text (with brackets). You also need to enclose short quotations in quotation marks, set off longer quotes as a block, and use appropriate  SIGNAL PHRASES.

Incorporate short quotations into your text

Incorporate short quotations into your text enclosed in quotation marks. If you are following  MLA STYLE, this rule holds for four typed lines or fewer; if you are following  APA STYLE, short means no more than forty words.

If you are quoting three lines or less of poetry, run them in with your text, enclosed in quotation marks. Separate lines with slashes, leaving one space on each side of the slashes.

Set off long quotations block style

For MLA style, set off quotations of five or more typed lines by indenting the quote one inch (or ten spaces) from the left margin. For APA style, indent quotes of forty or more words one-half inch (or five spaces) from the left margin. In either case, do not use quotation marks, and put any parenthetical citation after any end punctuation. If you are quoting four or more lines of poetry, they need to be in block style as well.

Indicate any omissions with ellipses

Insert three ellipsis marks (leaving a space before the first and after the last one) to indicate deleted words. If you omit a sentence or more in the middle of a quotation, put a period before the three ellipsis dots. Be careful not to distort the source's meaning.

Indicate additions or changes with brackets

To change or add words in a quotation, put your wording in brackets.

A note about punctuating quotes

Think about the end punctuation in the quoted material and also about any punctuation you may need to add in your own sentence.

Periods and commas

Put periods or commas inside the quotation marks, except when you have a parenthetical citation at the end, in which case you put the period after the parentheses. In block style, however, the period goes before the citation.

Question marks and exclamation points

These go inside quotation marks if they are part of the quoted material but outside when they are not. A parenthetical citation at the end immediately follows the closing quotation mark, and any punctuation that's part of your sentence comes after.

Colons and semicolons

These always go outside the quotation marks.

Paraphrasing

When you paraphrase, you restate information from a source in your own words, using your own sentence structures. Paraphrase when the source material is important but the original wording is not. Because it includes all the main points of the source, a paraphrase is usually about the same length as the original.

Some guidelines for paraphrasing
  • Use your own words and sentence structure.
  • Put in quotation marks any of the source's original phrasing that you use.
  • Indicate the source of your paraphrase.

Summarizing

A summary states the main ideas found in a source concisely and in your own words. Unlike a paraphrase, a summary does not present all the details, so it is generally as brief as possible. Summaries may boil down an entire book or essay into a single sentence, or they may take a paragraph or more to present the main ideas.

Some guidelines for summarizing
  • Include only the main ideas; leave out the details.
  • Use your own words.
  • Indicate the source.

Incorporating Source Materials into Your Text

You need to introduce quotations, paraphrases, and summaries clearly, usually letting readers know who the author is—and, if need be, something about his or her credentials.

Signal phrases

A signal phrase tells readers who says or believes something. The verb you use can be neutral— says or thinks—or it can suggest something about the  STANCE—the source's or your own.

Verb tenses

MLA requires present-tense verbs in signal phrases to introduce a work you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing. If, however, you are referring to the act of writing or saying something, you might not use the present tense.

For APA style, use the past tense or present-perfect tense to introduce sources composed in the past. Use the present tense, however, to discuss the results of an experiment.



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Acknowledging Sources, Avoiding Plagiarism

As a writer, you need to acknowledge any words and ideas that come from others. Using other people's words and ideas without acknowledgment is plagiarism, a serious academic and ethical offense. This chapter will show you how to acknowledge the materials you use and avoid plagiarism.

Acknowledging Sources

Your reader needs to know where your source's words or ideas begin and end. Therefore, you should introduce a source by naming the author in a  SIGNAL PHRASE, and follow it with a brief parenthetical in-text citation (both  MLA and  APA styles use these) or by naming the source in a parenthetical citation.

Sources that need acknowledgment

You almost always need to acknowledge information from a specific source, including the following:

  • Direct quotations.
  • Arguable statements and information that may not be common knowledge.
  • The opinions and assertions of others.
  • Any information that you didn't generate yourself.
  • Collaboration with and help from others.
Sources that don't need acknowledgment

Widely available information and common knowledge do not require acknowledgment. When in doubt, provide a citation or ask your instructor for advice. You generally do not need to cite the following sources:

  • Information that most readers are likely to know.
  • Information and documents that are widely available.
  • Well-known quotations.
  • Material that you created or gathered yourself.

Avoiding Plagiarism

If you don't credit the words or ideas of others, you are guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is often unintentional—as when a writer paraphrases someone else's ideas in language that is close to the original. It is essential, therefore, to know what constitutes plagiarism: (1) using another writer's words or ideas without in-text citation and documentation, (2) using another writer's exact words without quotation marks, and (3) paraphrasing or summarizing someone else's ideas using language or sentence structures that are too close to theirs.

To avoid plagiarizing, take careful notes, know what source material you must  DOCUMENT, and give credit to your sources, both in the text and in a list of  REFERENCES or  WORKS CITED. Be especially careful with material found online.



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Documentation

In everyday life, we are generally aware of our sources: "I read it in the Post." "Amber told me it's your birthday." "If you don't believe me, ask Mom." Saying how we know what we know and where we got our information is part of establishing our credibility and persuading others to take what we say seriously.

The goal of a research project is to study a topic, combining what we learn from sources with our own thinking and then composing a written text. When we write up the results of a research project, we cite the sources we use, usually by quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing, and we acknowledge those sources, telling readers where the ideas came from. The information we give about sources is called documentation, and we provide it not only to establish our credibility as researchers and writers but also so that our readers, if they wish to, can find the sources themselves.

Understanding Documentation Styles

The Norton Field Guide covers the documentation styles of the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA). MLA style is used chiefly in the humanities; APA is used mainly in the social sciences. Both are two-part systems, consisting of (1) brief in-text parenthetical documentation for quotations, paraphrases, or summaries and (2) more-detailed documentation in a list of sources at the end of the text. MLA and APA require that the end-of-text documentation provide the following basic information about each source you cite:

  • author, editor, or organization providing the information
  • title of work
  • place of publication
  • name of organization or company that published it
  • date when it was published
  • retrieval information for online sources, date when you accessed the source

MLA and APA are by no means the only documentation styles. Many other publishers and organizations have their own style, among them the University of Chicago Press and the Council of Science Editors. We focus on MLA and APA here because those are styles that college students are often required to use. On the following page are examples of how the two parts—the brief parenthetical documentation in your text and the more detailed information at the end—correspond. The top of the next page shows the two parts according to the MLA system; the bottom, the two parts according to the APA system.

As the examples show, when you cite a work in your text, you can name the author either in a signal phrase or in parentheses. If you name the author in a signal phrase, give the page number(s) in parentheses; when the author's name is not given in a signal phrase, include it in the parentheses.

The examples here and throughout this book are color-coded to help you see the crucial parts of each citation: tan for author and editor, yellow for title, and gray for publication information: place of publication, name of publisher, date of publication, page number(s), medium of publication, and so on. Comparing the MLA and APA styles of listing works cited or references reveals some differences: MLA includes an author's first name while APA gives only the initials; MLA puts the date near the end while APA places it right after the author's name; MLA requires the medium of publication while APA usually does not; MLA capitalizes most of the words in the title and subtitle while APA capitalizes only the first words and proper nouns of each. Overall, however, the styles provide similar information: each gives author, title, and publication data.

MLA Style

IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

As Lester Faigley puts it, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle'" (12).

As one observer suggests, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle'" (Faigley 12).

WORKS-CITED DOCUMENTATION

Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992. Print.

APA Style

IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

As Faigley (1992) suggested, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle'" (p. 12).

As one observer has noted, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle'" (Faigley, 1992, p. 12).

REFERENCE-LIST DOCUMENTATION

Faigley, L. (1992). Fragments of rationality: Postmodernity and the subject of composition. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.



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MLA Style

Modern Language Association style calls for (1) brief in-text documentation and (2) complete documentation in a list of works cited at the end of your text. The models in this chapter draw on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (2009). Additional information is available at www.mla.org.



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MLA in-text documentation

1. Author named in a signal phrase

2. Author named in parentheses

3. Two or more works by the same author

4. Authors with the same last name

5. After a block quotation

6. Two or more authors

7. Organization or government as author

8. Author unknown

9. Literary works

10. Work in an anthology

11. Sacred text

12. Multivolume work

13. Two or more works cited together

14. Source quoted in another source

15. Work without page numbers

16. An entire work or one-page article



MLA IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

Brief documentation in your text makes clear to your reader what you took from a source and where in the source you found the information.

In your text, you have three options for citing a source:  QUOTING,  PARAPHRASING, and  SUMMARIZING. As you cite each source, you will need to decide whether or not to name the author in a signal phrase—"as Toni Morrison writes"—or in parentheses—"(Morrison 24)."

The first examples in this chapter show basic in-text citations of a work by one author. Variations on those examples follow. All of the examples are color-coded to help you see how writers using MLA style work authors and page numbers—and sometimes titles—into their texts. The examples also illustrate the MLA style of using quotation marks around titles of short works and italicizing titles of long works.

1. AUTHOR NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE

If you mention the author in a signal phrase, put only the page number(s) in parentheses. Do not write page or p.

McCullough describes John Adams as having "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (18).

McCullough describes John Adams's hands as those of someone used to manual labor (18).

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2. AUTHOR NAMED IN PARENTHESES

If you do not mention the author in a signal phrase, put his or her last name in parentheses along with the page number(s). Do not use punctuation between the name and the page number(s).

Adams is said to have had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (McCullough 18).

One biographer describes John Adams as someone who was not a stranger to manual labor (McCullough 18).

Whether you use a signal phrase and parentheses or parentheses only, try to put the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence or as close as possible to the material you've cited without awkwardly interrupting the sentence. Notice that in the first example above, the parenthetical reference comes after the closing quotation marks but before the period at the end of the sentence.

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3. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR

If you cite multiple works by one author, you have four choices. You can mention the author in a signal phrase and give the title and page reference in parentheses. Give the full title if it's brief; otherwise, give a short version.

Kaplan insists that understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Eastward 330).

You can mention both author and title in a signal phrase and give only the page reference in parentheses.

In Eastward to Tartary, Kaplan insists that understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (330).

You can indicate author, title, and page reference only in parentheses, with a comma between author and title.

Understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Kaplan, Eastward 330).

Or you can mention the title in a signal phrase and give the author and page reference in parentheses.

Eastward to Tartary argues that understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Kaplan 330).

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4. AUTHORS WITH THE SAME LAST NAME

If your works-cited list includes works by authors with the same last name, you need to give the author's first name in any signal phrase or the author's first initial in the parenthetical reference.

Edmund Wilson uses the broader term imaginative, whereas Anne Wilson chooses the narrower adjective magical.

Imaginative applies not only to modern literature (E. Wilson) but also to writing of all periods, whereas magical is often used in writing about Arthurian romances (A. Wilson).

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5. AFTER A BLOCK QUOTATION

When quoting more than three lines of poetry, more than four lines of prose, or dialogue from a drama, set off the quotation from the rest of your text, indenting it one inch (or ten spaces) from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks. Place any parenthetical documentation after the final punctuation.

In Eastward to Tartary, Kaplan captures ancient and contemporary Antioch for us:

At the height of its glory in the Roman-Byzantine age, when it had an amphitheater, public baths, aqueducts, and sewage pipes, half a million people lived in Antioch. Today the population is only 125,000. With sour relations between Turkey and Syria, and unstable politics throughout the Middle East, Antioch is now a backwater—seedy and tumbledown, with relatively few tourists. I found it altogether charming. (123)

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6. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

For a work by two or three authors, name all the authors, either in a signal phrase or in the parentheses.

Carlson and Ventura's stated goal is to introduce Julio Cortézar, Marjorie Agosín, and other Latin American writers to an audience of English-speaking adolescents (v).

For a work with four or more authors, you have the option of mentioning all their names or just the name of the first author followed by et al., which means "and others."

One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into sixteen thematic groupings (Anderson, Brinnin, Leggett, Arpin, and Toth A19–24).

One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into sixteen thematic groupings (Anderson et al. A19–24).

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7. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

If the author is an organization, cite the organization either in a signal phrase or in parentheses. It's acceptable to shorten long names.

The U.S. government can be direct when it wants to be. For example, it sternly warns, "If you are overpaid, we will recover any payments not due you" (Social Security Administration 12).

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8. AUTHOR UNKNOWN

If you don't know the author of a work, as you won't with many reference books and with most newspaper editorials, use the work's title or a shortened version of the title in the parentheses.

The explanatory notes at the front of the literature encyclopedia point out that writers known by pseudonyms are listed alphabetically under those pseudonyms (Merriam-Webster's vii).

A powerful editorial in last week's paper asserts that healthy liver donor Mike Hurewitz died because of "frightening" faulty postoperative care ("Every Patient's Nightmare").

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9. LITERARY WORKS

When referring to literary works that are available in many different editions, cite the page numbers from the edition you are using, followed by information that will let readers of any edition locate the text you are citing.

NOVELS

Give the page and chapter number.

In Pride and Prejudice, Mrs. Bennett shows no warmth toward Jane and Elizabeth when they return from Netherfield (105; ch. 12).

VERSE PLAYS

Give the act, scene, and line numbers; separate them with periods.

Macbeth continues the vision theme when he addresses the Ghost with "Thou hast no speculation in those eyes/Which thou dost glare with" (3.3.96–97).

POEMS

Give the part and the line numbers (separated by periods). If a poem has only line numbers, use the word line(s) in the first reference.

Whitman sets up not only opposing adjectives but also opposing nouns in "Song of Myself" when he says, "I am of old and young, of the foolish as much as the wise, / ... a child as well as a man" (16.330–32).

One description of the mere in Beowulf is "not a pleasant place!" (line 1372). Later, the label is "the awful place" (1378).

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10. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY

If you're citing a work that is included in an anthology, name the author(s) of the work, not the editor of the anthology—either in a signal phrase or in parentheses.

"It is the teapots that truly shock," according to Cynthia Ozick in her essay on teapots as metaphor (70).

In In Short: A Collection of Creative Nonfiction, readers will find both an essay on Scottish tea (Hiestand) and a piece on teapots as metaphors (Ozick).

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11. SACRED TEXT

When citing sacred texts such as the Bible or the Qur'an, give the title of the edition used, and in parentheses give the book, chapter, and verse (or their equivalent), separated by periods. MLA style recommends that you abbreviate the names of the books of the Bible in parenthetical references.

The wording from The New English Bible follows: "In the beginning of creation, when God made heaven and earth, the earth was without form and void, with darkness over the face of the abyss, and a mighty wind that swept over the surface of the waters" (Gen. 1.1–2).

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12. MULTIVOLUME WORK

If you cite more than one volume of a multivolume work, each time you cite one of the volumes, give the volume and the page numbers in parentheses, separated by a colon.

Sandburg concludes with the following sentence about those paying last respects to Lincoln: "All day long and through the night the unbroken line moved, the home town having its farewell" (4: 413).

If your works-cited list includes only a single volume of a multivolume work, the only number you need to give in your parenthetical reference is the page number.

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13. TWO OR MORE WORKS CITED TOGETHER

If you're citing two or more works closely together, you will sometimes need to provide a parenthetical citation for each one.

Tanner (7) and Smith (viii) have looked at works from a cultural perspective.

If the citation allows you to include both in the same parentheses, separate the references with a semicolon.

Critics have looked at both Pride and Prejudice and Frankenstein from a cultural perspective (Tanner 7; Smith viii).

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14. SOURCE QUOTED IN ANOTHER SOURCE

When you are quoting text that you found quoted in another source, use the abbreviation qtd. in in the parenthetical reference.

Charlotte Brontë wrote to G. H. Lewes: "Why do you like Miss Austen so very much? I am puzzled on that point" (qtd. in Tanner 7).

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15. WORK WITHOUT PAGE NUMBERS

For works without page numbers, give paragraph or section numbers, if they appear in the source text; use the abbreviation par. or sec. If you are including the author's name in the parenthetical reference, add a comma.

Russell's dismissals from Trinity College at Cambridge and from City College in New York City are seen as examples of the controversy that marked the philosopher's life (Irvine, par. 2).

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16. AN ENTIRE WORK OR ONE-PAGE ARTICLE

If your text is referring to an entire work rather than a part of it or a one-page-long article, identify the author in a signal phrase or in parentheses. There's no need to include page numbers.

Kaplan considers Turkey and Central Asia explosive.

At least one observer considers Turkey and Central Asia explosive (Kaplan).



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Notes

Sometimes you may need to give information that doesn't fit into the text itself—to thank people who helped you, provide additional details, or refer readers to other sources not cited in your text. Such information can be given in a footnote (at the bottom of the page) or an endnote (on a separate page with the heading Notes just before your works-cited list). Put a superscript number at the appropriate point in your text, signaling to readers to look for the note with the corresponding number. If you have multiple notes, number them consecutively throughout your paper.

TEXT

This essay will argue that small liberal arts colleges should not recruit athletes and, more specifically, that giving student athletes preferential treatment undermines the larger educational goals.1

NOTE

1I want to thank all those who have contributed to my thinking on this topic, especially my classmates and my teachers Marian Johnson and Diane O'Connor.



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MLA list of works cited

BOOKS

1. One author

2. Two or more works by the same author(s)

3. Two authors

4. Three authors

5. Four or more authors

6. Organization or government as author

7. Anthology

8. Work(s) in an anthology

9. Author and editor

10. No author or editor

11. Translation

12. Graphic narrative

13. Foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword

14. Multivolume work

15. Article in a reference book

16. Book in a series

17. Sacred text

18. Edition other than the first

19. Republished work

PERIODICALS

20. Article in a journal

21. Article in a journal numbered by issue

22. Article in a monthly magazine

23. Article in a weekly magazine

24. Article in a daily newspaper

25. Unsigned article

26. Editorial

27. Letter to the editor

28. Review

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

29. Entire website

30. Work from a website

31. Home page for an academic department

32. Home page for an academic course

33. Online book or part of a book

34. Article in an online scholarly journal

35. Article in an online newspaper

36. Article in an online magazine

37. Blog entry

38. Article accessed through an online database or subscription service

39. Online editorial

40. Online letter to the editor

41. Online review

42. Email

43. Posting to an electronic forum

44. Article in an online reference work

45. Entry in a wiki

46. CD-ROM or DVD-ROM

47. Podcast

OTHER KINDS OF SOURCES (INCLUDING ONLINE VERSIONS)

48. Advertisement

49. Art

50. Cartoon

51. Dissertation

52. Film, video, or DVD

53. Interview

54. Letter

55. Map

56. Musical score

57. Sound recording

58. Oral presentation

59. Paper from proceedings of a conference

60. Performance

61. Television or radio program

62. Pamphlet, brochure, or press release

63. Legal source

64. MP3 file, JPEG file, or other digital file

HOW TO CITE SOURCES THAT MLA DOESN'T COVER


MLA LIST OF WORKS CITED

A works-cited list provides full bibliographic information for every source cited in your text. The list should be alphabetized by authors' last names (or sometimes by editors' or translators' names). Works that do not have an identifiable author or editor are alphabetized by title, disregarding A, An, and The. See the student essay at the end of this chapter for a sample works-cited list.

Books

BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK

For most books, you'll need to provide information about the author; the title and any subtitle; and the place of publication, publisher, and date. (You'll find this information on the book's title page and copyright page.) At the end of the citation provide the medium—Print.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare. New York: Norton, 2004. Print.

A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • AUTHORS: Include the author's middle name or initials, if any.
  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles, subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle.
  • PLACE OF PUBLICATION: If more than one city is given, use only the first.
  • PUBLISHER: Use a shortened form of the publisher's name (Norton for W. W. Norton & Company, Princeton UP for Princeton University Press).
  • DATES: If more than one year is given, use the most recent one.
1. ONE AUTHOR

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Anderson, Curtis. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. New York: Hyperion, 2006. Print.

When the title of a book itself contains the title of another book (or other long work), do not italicize that title.

Walker, Roy. Time Is Free: A Study of Macbeth. London: Dakers, 1949. Print.

When the title of a book contains the title of a short work, the title of the short work should be enclosed in quotation marks, and the entire title should be italicized.

Thompson, Lawrance Roger. "Fire and Ice": The Art and Thought of Robert Frost. New York: Holt, 1942. Print.

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2. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR(S)

Give the author's name in the first entry, and then use three hyphens in the author slot for each of the subsequent works, listing them alphabetically by the first important word of each title.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title That Comes First Alphabetically. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

---. Title That Comes Next Alphabetically. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Kaplan, Robert D. The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War. New York: Random, 2000. Print.

---. Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. New York: Random, 2000. Print.

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3. TWO AUTHORS

First Author's Last Name, First Name, and Second Author's First and Last Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Malless, Stanley, and Jeffrey McQuain. Coined by God: Words and Phrases That First Appear in the English Translations of the Bible. New York: Norton, 2003. Print.

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4. THREE AUTHORS

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First and Last Names, and Third Author's First and Last Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Sebranek, Patrick, Verne Meyer, and Dave Kemper. Writers INC: A Guide to Writing, Thinking, and Learning. Burlington: Write Source, 1990. Print.

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5. FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

You may give each author's name or the name of the first author only, followed by et al., Latin for "and others."

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First and Last Names, Third Author's First and Last Names, and Final Author's First and Last Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Anderson, Robert, John Malcolm Brinnin, John Leggett, Gary Q. Arpin, and Susan Allen Toth. Elements of Literature: Literature of the United States. Austin: Holt, 1993. Print.

First Author's Last Name, First Name, et al. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Anderson, Robert, et al. Elements of Literature: Literature of the United States. Austin: Holt, 1993. Print.

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6. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

Sometimes the author is a corporation or government organization.

Organization Name. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Diagram Group. The Macmillan Visual Desk Reference. New York: Macmillan, 1993. Print.

National Assessment of Educational Progress. The Civics Report Card. Princeton: ETS, 1990. Print.

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7. ANTHOLOGY

Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of Children's Verse in America. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. Print.

If there is more than one editor, list the first editor last-name-first and the others first-name-first.

Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction. New York: Norton, 1996. Print.

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8. WORK(S) IN AN ANTHOLOGY

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Title of Anthology. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Pages. Medium.

Achebe, Chinua. "Uncle Ben's Choice." The Seagull Reader: Literature. Ed. Joseph Kelly. New York: Norton, 2005. 23–27. Print.

To document two or more selections from one anthology, list each selection by author and title, followed by the anthology editor(s)' names and the pages of the selection. Then include an entry for the anthology itself (see no. 7).

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Anthology Editor's Last Name Pages.

Hiestand, Emily. "Afternoon Tea." Kitchen and Jones 65–67.

Ozick, Cynthia. "The Shock of Teapots." Kitchen and Jones 68–71.

Do not list the anthology separately if you're citing only one selection.

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9. AUTHOR AND EDITOR

Start with the author if you've cited the text itself.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Austen, Jane. Emma. Ed. Stephen M. Parrish. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.

Start with the editor if you've cited his or her work.

Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Parrish, Stephen M., ed. Emma. By Jane Austen. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.

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10. NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR

Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

2008 New York City Restaurants. New York: Zagat, 2008. Print.

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11. TRANSLATION

Start with the author to emphasize the work itself.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Trans. Translator's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.

Start with the translator to emphasize the translation.

Translator's Last Name, First Name, trans. Title. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Pevear, Richard, and Larissa Volokhonsky, trans. Crime and Punishment. By Fyodor Dostoevsky. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.

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12. GRAPHIC NARRATIVE

Start with the name of the person whose contribution is most relevant to your research, and include labels to indicate each collaborator's role.

Author's Last Name, First Name, writer. Title. Illus. Artist's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Pekar, Harvey, writer. American Splendor: Bob and Harv's Comics. Illus. R. Crumb. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. Print.

Crumb, R., illus. American Splendor: Bob and Harv's Comics. By Harvey Pekar. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. Print.

If the work is entirely written and illustrated by the same person, format the entry like that of any other book.

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13. FOREWORD, INTRODUCTION, PREFACE, OR AFTERWORD

Part Author's Last Name, First Name. Name of Part. Title of Book. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Pages. Medium.

Tanner, Tony. Introduction. Pride and Prejudice. By Jane Austen. London: Penguin, 1972. 7–46. Print.

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14. MULTIVOLUME WORK

If you cite all the volumes of a multivolume work, give the number of volumes after the title.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Complete Work. Number of vols. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 4 vols. New York: Harcourt, 1939. Print.

If you cite only one volume, give the volume number after the title.

Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. Vol. 2. New York: Harcourt, 1939. Print.

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15. ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK

Provide the author's name if the article is signed. If the reference work is well known, give only the edition and year of publication.

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Reference Book. Edition number. Year of publication. Medium.

"Histrionics." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2003. Print.

If the reference work is less familiar or more specialized, give full publication information. If it has only one volume or is in its first edition, omit that information.

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Reference Book. Ed. Editor's First and Last Name. Edition number. Number of vols. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Campbell, James. "The Harlem Renaissance." The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry. Ed. Ian Hamilton. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

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16. BOOK IN A SERIES

Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title of Book. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium. Series Title abbreviated.

Wall, Cynthia, ed. The Pilgrim's Progress. By John Bunyan. New York: Norton, 2007. Print. Norton Critical Ed.

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17. SACRED TEXT

If you have cited a specific edition of a religious text, you need to include it in your works-cited list.

Title, Ed. Editor's First and Last Names (if any). Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

The New English Bible with the Apocrypha. New York: Oxford UP, 1971. Print.

The Torah: A Modern Commentary. Ed. W. Gunther Plaut. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1981. Print.

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18. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Name or number of ed. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003. Print.

Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your Second Grader Needs to Know:Fundamentals of a Good Second-Grade Education. Rev. ed. New York: Doubleday, 1998. Print.

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19. REPUBLISHED WORK

Give the original publication date after the title, followed by the publication information of the republished edition.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Year of original edition. Publication City: Current Publisher, Year of republication. Medium.

Bierce, Ambrose. Civil War Stories. 1909. New York: Dover, 1994. Print.

Periodicals

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BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ARTICLE

For most articles, you'll need to provide information about the author, the article title and any subtitle, the periodical title, any volume or issue number, the date, inclusive page numbers, and the medium—Print.

Weinberger, Jerry. "Pious Princes and Red-Hot Lovers: The Politics of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet." Journal of Politics 65.2 (2003): 350–75. Print.

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A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • AUTHORS: If there is more than one author, list the first author last-name-first and the others first-name-first.
  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.
  • DATES: Abbreviate the names of months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Journals paginated by volume or issue call only for the year (in parentheses).
  • PAGES: If an article does not fall on consecutive pages, give the first page with a plus sign (55+).
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20. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium.

Cooney, Brian C. "Considering Robinson Crusoe's 'Liberty of Conscience'" in an Age of Terror." College English 69.3 (2007): 197–215. Print.

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21. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL NUMBERED BY ISSUE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Issue (Year): Pages. Medium.

Flynn, Kevin. "The Railway in Canadian Poetry." Canadian Literature 174 (2002): 70–95. Print.

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22. ARTICLE IN A MONTHLY MAGAZINE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Fellman, Bruce. "Leading the Libraries." Yale Alumni Magazine Feb. 2002: 26–31. Print.

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23. ARTICLE IN A WEEKLY MAGAZINE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Day Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Walsh, Bryan. "Not a Watt to Be Wasted." Time 17 Mar. 2008: 46–47. Print.

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24. ARTICLE IN A DAILY NEWSPAPER

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper Day Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Springer, Shira. "Celtics Reserves Are Whizzes vs. Wizards." Boston Globe 14 Mar. 2005: D4+. Print.

If you are documenting a particular edition of a newspaper (indicated on the front page), specify the edition (late ed., natl. ed., etc.) between the date and the section and page reference.

Svoboda, Elizabeth. "Faces, Faces Everywhere." New York Times 13 Feb. 2007, natl. ed.: D1+. Print.

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25. UNSIGNED ARTICLE

"Title of Article." Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page(s). Medium.

"Being Invisible Closer to Reality." Atlanta Journal-Constitution 11 Aug. 2008: A3. Print.

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26. EDITORIAL

"Title." Editorial. Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page. Medium.

"Gas, Cigarettes Are Safe to Tax." Editorial. Lakeville Journal 17 Feb. 2005: A10. Print.

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27. LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any)." Letter. Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page. Medium.

Festa, Roger. "Social Security: Another Phony Crisis." Letter. Lakeville Journal 17 Feb. 2005: A10. Print.

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28. REVIEW

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any) of Review." Rev. of Title of Work, by Author's First and Last Names. Title of Periodical Day Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Frank, Jeffrey. "Body Count." Rev. of The Exception, by Christian Jungersen. New Yorker 30 July 2007: 86–87. Print.

Electronic Sources

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BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ELECTRONIC SOURCE

Not every electronic source gives you all the data that MLA would like to see in a works-cited entry. Ideally, you will be able to list the author's name, the title, any information about print publication, information about electronic publication (title of site, editor, date of first electronic publication and/or most recent revision, name of the publisher or sponsoring institution), publication medium, date of access, and, if necessary, a URL. Of those ten pieces of information, you will find seven in the following example.

Johnson, Charles W. "How Our Laws Are Made." Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. Lib. of Congress, 30 June 2003. Web. 21 June 2008.

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A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • AUTHORS OR EDITORS: If there is more than one author or editor, list the first one last-name-first and the others first-name-first.
  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.
  • PUBLISHER: If the name of the publisher or sponsoring institution is unavailable, use N.p.
  • DATES: Abbreviate the months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Although MLA asks for the date when materials were first posted or most recently updated, you won't always be able to find that information; if it's unavailable, use n.d. You'll also find that it will vary—you may find only the year, not the day and month. The date you must include is the date on which you accessed the electronic source.
  • MEDIUM: Indicate the medium—Web, Email, CD-ROM, and so on.
  • URL: MLA assumes that readers can locate most sources on the Web by searching for the author, title, or other identifying information, so they don't require a Web address for most online sources. When users can't locate the source without a URL, give the address of the website in angle brackets. When a URL won't fit on one line, break it only after a slash (and do not add a hyphen). If a URL is very long, consider giving the URL of the site's home page or search page instead.
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29. ENTIRE WEBSITE

For websites with an editor, compiler, director, narrator, or translator, follow the first name with the appropriate abbreviation (ed., comp., dir., narr., trans.).

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website. Publisher or Sponsoring Institution, Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Zalta, Edward N., ed. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford U, 2007. Web. 25 July 2008.

PERSONAL WEBSITE

Author's Last Name, First Name. Home page. Publisher or Sponsoring Institution, Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Nunberg, Geoffrey. Home page. School of Information, U of California, Berkeley, 2009. Web. 13 Apr. 2009.

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30. WORK FROM A WEBSITE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Title of Website. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Sponsoring Institution, Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Buff, Rachel Ida. "Becoming American." Immigration History Research Center. U of Minnesota, 24 Mar. 2008. Web. 4 Apr. 2008.

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31. HOME PAGE FOR AN ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT

Academic Department. Dept. home page. School. Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

English Language and Literatures. Dept. home page. Wright State U College of Liberal Arts. 8 Mar. 2009. Web. 31 Mar. 2009.

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32. HOME PAGE FOR AN ACADEMIC COURSE

Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Course." Course home page. Dates of course. Dept. name. School. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Woolf, Linda M. "Social Psychology." Course home page. Spring 2009. Dept. of Psychology. Webster U. Web. 15 Mar. 2009.

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33. ONLINE BOOK OR PART OF a BOOK

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Short Work." Title of Long Work. Original city of publication: Original publisher, Original year of publication. Original pages. Title of Website or Database. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Anderson, Sherwood. "The Philosopher." Winesburg, Ohio. New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1919. N. pag. Bartleby.com. Web. 7 Apr. 2008.

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34. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE SCHOLARLY JOURNAL

If a journal does not number pages, or if it numbers each article separately, use n. pag. in place of page numbers.

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Gleckman, Jason. "Shakespeare as Poet or Playwright? The Player's Speech in Hamlet." Early Modern Literary Studies 11.3 (2006): n. pag. Web. 24 June 2008.

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35. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE NEWSPAPER

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper. Publisher, Day Month Year. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Banerjee, Neela. "Proposed Religion-Based Program for Federal Inmates Is Canceled." New York Times. New York Times, 28 Oct. 2006. Web. 24 June 2008.

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36. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE MAGAZINE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine. Publisher, Date of publication. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Landsburg, Steven E. "Putting All Your Potatoes in One Basket: The Economic Lessons of the Great Famine." Slate.com. Washington Post-Newsweek Interactive, 13 Mar. 2001. Web. 15 Mar. 2006.

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37. BLOG ENTRY

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Blog Entry." Title of Blog. Publisher or Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Gladwell, Malcolm. "Enron and Newspapers." Gladwell.com. N.p., 4 Jan. 2007. Web. 26 Aug. 2008.

If the entry has no title, use "Blog entry" without quotation marks.

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38. ARTICLE ACCESSED THROUGH AN ONLINE DATABASE OR SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE

Many library subscription services, such as InfoTrac and EBSCO, and personal subscription services, such as America Online, provide access to texts for a fee.

FROM A LIBRARY DATABASE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Database. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Ott, Brian L. "'I'm Bart Simpson, Who the Hell Are You?': A Study in Postmodern Identity (Re)Construction." Journal of Popular Culture 37.1 (2003): 56–82. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Mar. 2008.

FROM A PERSONAL SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Document." Title of Longer Work Date of work. Service. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Stewart, Garrett. "Bloomsbury." World Book Online 2003. America Online. Web. 13 Mar. 2007.

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39. ONLINE EDITORIAL

"Title of Editorial." Editorial. Title of Site. Publisher, Day Month Year of publication. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

"Keep Drinking Age at 21." Editorial. ChicagoTribune.com. Chicago Tribune, 25 Aug. 2008. Web. 28 Aug. 2008.

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40. ONLINE LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any) of Letter." Letter. Title of Site. Publisher, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Hartman, Berl. "Find Real Solutions for Rising Gas Prices." Letter. Boston.com. Boston Globe, 26 Aug. 2008. Web. 29 Aug. 2008.

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41. ONLINE REVIEW

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Rev. of Title of Work, by Author's First and Last Names. Title of Website. Publisher, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Foundas, Scott. "Heath Ledger Peers into the Abyss in The Dark Knight." Rev. of The Dark Knight, dir. Christopher Nolan. VillageVoice.com. Village Voice, 16 July 2008. Web. 26 Aug. 2008.

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42. EMAIL

Writer's Last Name, First Name. "Subject Line." Message to the author. Day Month Year of message. Medium.

Smith, William. "Teaching Grammar—Some Thoughts." Message to the author. 19 Nov. 2007. Email.

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43. POSTING TO AN ELECTRONIC FORUM

Writer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Posting." Name of Forum. Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year of posting. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Mintz, Stephen H. "Manumission During the Revolution." H-Net List on Slavery. Michigan State U, 14 Sept. 2006. Web. 18 Apr. 2009.

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44. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE REFERENCE WORK

"Title of Article." Title of Reference Work. Sponsor of work, Date of work. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

"Dubai." MSN Encarta. Microsoft Corporation, 2008. Web. 20 June 2008.

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45. ENTRY IN A WIKI

"Title of Entry." Title of Wiki. Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

"Planet." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 2 Sept. 2008.

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46. CD-ROM OR DVD-ROM

FOR A SINGLE-ISSUE CD-ROM

Title. Any pertinent information about the edition, release, or version. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Othello. Princeton: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1998. CD-ROM.

If you are citing only part of the CD-ROM or DVD-ROM, name the part as you would a part of a book.

"Snow Leopard." Encarta Encyclopedia 2007. Seattle: Microsoft, 2007. CD-ROM.

FOR A PERIODICAL ON A CD-ROM OR DVD-ROM

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Page. Medium. Database. Database provider. Month Year of CD-ROM.

Hwang, Suein L. "While Many Competitors See Sales Melt, Ben & Jerry's Scoops Out Solid Growth." Wall Street Journal 25 May 1993: B1. CD-ROM. ABI-INFORM. ProQuest. June 1993.

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47. PODCAST

Performer or Host's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Podcast." Host Host's First and Last Name. Title of Program. Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Blumberg, Alex, and Adam Davidson. "The Giant Pool of Money." Host Ira Glass. This American Life. Chicago Public Radio, 9 May 2008. Web. 18 Sept. 2008.

Other Kinds of Sources (Including Online Versions)

Many of the sources in this section can be found online, and you'll find examples here for how to cite them. If there is no Web model here, start with the guidelines most appropriate for the source you need to cite, omit the original medium, and end your citation with the title of the website, italicized; the medium (Web); and the day, month, and year of access.

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A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • AUTHORS: If there is more than one author, list the first author last-name-first and the others first-name-first. Do likewise if you begin an entry with performers, speakers, and so on.
  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.
  • DATES: Abbreviate the names of months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Journals paginated by volume or issue need only the year (in parentheses).
  • MEDIUM: Indicate the medium—Web, Lecture, Television, Microsoft Word file, MP3 file, PDF file, and so on.
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48. ADVERTISEMENT

Product or Company. Advertisement. Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Page. Medium.

Empire BlueCross BlueShield. Advertisement. Fortune 8 Dec. 2003: 208. Print.

ADVERTISEMENT ON THE WEB

Rolex. Advertisement. Newsweek. Newsweek, n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2009.

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49. ART

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Art. Medium. Year. Institution, City.

Van Gogh, Vincent. The Potato Eaters. Oil on canvas. 1885. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam.

ART ON THE WEB

Warhol, Andy. Self-Portrait. 1979. J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. The Getty. Web. 29 Mar. 2007.

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50. CARTOON

Artist's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Cartoon (if titled)." Cartoon. Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Page. Medium.

Chast, Roz. "The Three Wise Men of Thanksgiving." Cartoon. New Yorker 1 Dec. 2003: 174. Print.

CARTOON ON THE WEB

Horsey, David. Cartoon. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 20 Apr. 2008. Web. 21 Apr. 2008.

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51. DISSERTATION

Treat a published dissertation as you would a book, but after its title, add the abbreviation Diss., the institution, and the date of the dissertation.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Diss. Institution, Year. Publication City: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Goggin, Peter N. A New Literacy Map of Research and Scholarship in Computers and Writing. Diss. Indiana U of Pennsylvania, 2000. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2001. Print.

For unpublished dissertations, put the title in quotation marks and end with the degree-granting institution and the year.

Kim, Loel. "Students Respond to Teacher Comments: A Comparison of Online Written and Voice Modalities." Diss. Carnegie Mellon U, 1998. Print.

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52. FILM, VIDEO, OR DVD

Title. Dir. Director's First and Last Names. Perf. Lead Actors' First and Last Names. Distributor, Year of release. Medium.

Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curtiz. Perf. Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Claude Rains. Warner, 1942. Film.

To cite a particular person's work, start with that name.

Cody, Diablo, scr. Juno. Dir. Jason Reitman. Perf. Ellen Page, Michael Cera, Jennifer Garner, Jason Bateman. Fox Searchlight, 2007. DVD.

FILM ON THE WEB

The Man Who Knew Too Much. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Perf. James Stewart and Doris Day. Universal Studios, 1956. Internet Archive. Web. 12 Mar. 2009.

Cite a video clip on YouTube or a similar site as you would a short work from a website.

Director's Last Name, First Name, dir. "Title of Video." Name of Website. Sponsor of site, Day Month Year of release. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

PivotMasterDX, dir. "Bounce!" YouTube. YouTube, 14 June 2008. Web. 21 June 2008.

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53. INTERVIEW

BROADCAST INTERVIEW

Subject's Last Name, First Name. Interview. Title of Program. Network. Station, City. Day Month Year. Medium.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Interview. Fresh Air. NPR. WNYC, New York. 9 Apr. 2002. Radio.

PUBLISHED INTERVIEW

Subject's Last Name, First Name. Interview. or "Title of Interview." Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew. "Against the Neocons." American Prospect Mar. 2005: 26–27. Print.

Stone, Oliver. Interview. Esquire Nov. 2004: 170. Print.

PERSONAL INTERVIEW

Subject's Last Name, First Name. Personal interview. Day Month Year.

Roddick, Andy. Personal interview. 17 August 2008.

INTERVIEW ON THE WEB

Singer, Peter. Interview with Jill Owens. Powell's Books. Powell's Books, 25 Feb. 2009. Web. 20 Mar. 2009.

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54. LETTER

UNPUBLISHED LETTER

Author's Last Name, First Name. Letter to the author. Day Month Year. Medium.

Quindlen, Anna. Letter to the author. 11 Apr. 2002. MS.

For the medium, use MS for a handwritten letter and TS for a typed letter.

PUBLISHED LETTER

Letter Writer's Last Name, First Name. Letter to First and Last Names. Day Month Year of letter. Title of Book. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Pages. Medium.

White, E. B. Letter to Carol Angell. 28 May 1970. Letters of E. B. White. Ed. Dorothy Lobarno Guth. New York: Harper, 1976. 600. Print.

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55. MAP

Title of Map. Map. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Toscana. Map. Milan: Touring Club Italiano, 1987. Print.

MAP ON THE WEB

"Portland, Oregon." Map. Google Maps. Google, 25 Apr. 2009. Web. 25 Apr. 2009.

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56. MUSICAL SCORE

Composer's Last Name, First Name. Title of Composition. Year of composition. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium. Series information (if any).

Ellington, Duke. "Mood Indigo." 1931.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. String Quartet No. 13 in B Flat, Op. 130. 1825. New York: Dover, 1970. Print.

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57. SOUND RECORDING

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Long Work. Other pertinent details about the artists. Manufacturer, Year of release. Medium.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Missa Solemnis. Perf. Westminster Choir and New York Philharmonic. Cond. Leonard Bernstein. Sony, 1992. CD.

Whether you list the composer, conductor, or performer first depends on where you want to place the emphasis. If you are citing a specific song, put it in quotation marks before the name of the recording.

Brown, Greg. "Canned Goods." The Live One. Red House, 1995. MP3 file.

For a spoken-word recording, you may begin with the writer, speaker, or producer, depending on your emphasis.

Dale, Jim, narr. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. By J.K. Rowling. Random House Audio, 2007. CD.

SOUND RECORDING ON THE WEB

Davis, Miles. "So What." Birth of the Cool. Columbia, 1959. Miles Davis. Web. 14 Feb. 2009.

If the sound recording was first published on the Web, include the date it was posted or last updated and the sponsor or publisher of the website.

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58. ORAL PRESENTATION

Speaker's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture." Sponsoring Institution. Site, City. Day Month Year. Medium.

Cassin, Michael. "Nature in the Raw—The Art of Landscape Painting." Berkshire Institute for Lifetime Learning. Clark Art Institute, Williamstown. 24 Mar. 2005. Lecture.

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59. PAPER FROM PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Paper." Title of Conference Proceedings. Date, City. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year. Pages. Medium.

Zolotow, Charlotte. "Passion in Publishing." A Sea of Upturned Faces: Proceedings of the Third Pacific Rim Conference on Children's Literature. 1986, Los Angeles. Ed. Winifred Ragsdale. Metuchen: Scarecrow P, 1989. 236–49. Print.

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60. PERFORMANCE

Title. By Author's First and Last Names. Other appropriate details about the performance. Site, City. Day Month Year. Medium.

Take Me Out. By Richard Greenberg. Dir. Scott Plate. Perf. Caleb Sekeres. Dobama Theatre, Cleveland. 17 Aug. 2007. Performance.

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61. TELEVISION OR RADIO PROGRAM

"Title of Episode." Title of Program. Other appropriate information about the writer, director, actors, etc. Network. Station, City, Day Month Year of broadcast. Medium.

"Tabula Rasa." Criminal Minds. Writ. Dan Dworkin. Dir. Steve Boyum. NBC. WCNC, Charlotte, 14 May 2008. Television.

TELEVISION OR RADIO ON THE WEB

"Bush's War." Frontline. Writ and Dir. Michael Kirk. PBS.org. PBS, 24 Mar. 2008. Web. 10 Apr. 2009.

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62. PAMPHLET, BROCHURE, OR PRESS RELEASE

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Publication. Publication City: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Bowers, Catherine. Can We Find a Home Here? Answering Questions of Interfaith Couples. Boston: UUA Publications, n.d. Print.

Cite a press release as you would a pamphlet, but include the day and month in addition to the year.

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63. LEGAL SOURCE

The name of a legal case is italicized in the text, but not in a works-cited entry.

Names of the first plaintiff and the first defendant. Volume Name Reference or page numbers of law report. Name of court. Year of decision. Source information for medium consulted.

District of Columbia v. Heller. 540 US 290. Supreme Court of the US. 2008. Supreme Court Collection. Legal Information Inst., Cornell U Law School, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2009.

For acts of law, include both the Public Law number and the Statutes at Large volume and page numbers.

Name of law. Public law number. Statutes at Large Volume Stat. Pages. Day Month Year enacted. Medium.

Military Commissions Act. Pub. L. 109–366. 120 Stat. 2803–2521. 17 Oct. 2006. Print.

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64. MP3 FILE, JPEG FILE, OR OTHER DIGITAL FILE

For scanned photos, downloaded songs, Microsoft Word documents, and other files stored on your computer, iPod, or other digital device, follow the guidelines for the type of work you are citing (art, sound recording, and so on) and give the file type as the medium. If you're not sure of the file type, call it a Digital file.

Conell, Lee. "Our Ancestors." 2009. Microsoft Word file.

Evans, Walker. General Store, Moundville, Alabama. 1936. Lib. of Congress, Washington. JPEG file.

Talking Heads. "Burning Down the House." Speaking in Tongues. Sire, 1983. Digital file.

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How to Cite Sources That MLA Does Not Cover

To cite a source for which MLA does not provide guidelines, give any information readers will need in order to find it themselves—author; title, subtitle; publisher and/or sponsor; medium; dates; and any other pertinent information. In addition, you can look at models of sources similar to the one you are citing. You might want to try out your citation yourself, to be sure it will lead others to the source.



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Sample research paper, MLA style

Dylan Borchers wrote the following report for a first-year writing course. It is formatted according to the guidelines of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (2009). While the MLA guidelines are used widely in literature and other disciplines in the humanities, exact documentation requirements may vary across disciplines and courses. If you're unsure about what your instructor wants, ask for clarification.

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APA Style

American Psychological Association (APA) style calls for (1) brief documentation in parentheses near each in-text citation and (2) complete documentation in a list of references at the end of your text. The models in this chapter draw on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2009). Additional information is available at www.apastyle.org.



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APA in-text documentation

1. Author named in a signal phrase

2. Author named in parentheses

3. Authors with the same last name

4. After a block quotation

5. Two authors

6. Three or more authors

7. Organization or government as author

8. Author unknown

9. Two or more works cited together

10. Source quoted in another source

11. Work without page numbers

12. An entire work

13. An entire website

14. Personal communication



APA IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

Brief documentation in your text makes clear to your reader precisely what you took from a source and, in the case of a quotation, precisely where (usually, on which page) in the source you found the text you are quoting.

Paraphrases and summaries are more common than quotations in APA-style projects. The chapter on quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing covers all three kinds of citations. It also includes a list of words you can use in signal phrases to introduce quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. As you cite each source, you will need to decide whether to name the author in a signal phrase—"as McCullough (2001) wrote"—or in parentheses—"(McCullough, 2001)."

The first examples in this chapter show basic in-text documentation for a work by one author. Variations on those examples follow. All of the examples are color-coded to help you see how writers using APA style work authors and page numbers—and sometimes titles—into their texts.

1. AUTHOR NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE

If you are quoting, you must give the page number(s). You are not required to give the page number(s) with a paraphrase or a summary, but APA encourages you to do so, especially if you are citing a long or complex work; most of the models in this chapter do include page numbers. Check with your instructors to find out their preferences.

AUTHOR QUOTED

Put the date in parentheses right after the author's name; put the page in parentheses as close to the quotation as possible.

McCullough (2001) described John Adams as having "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (p. 18).

John Adams had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood," according to McCullough (2001, p. 18).

Notice that in the first example, the parenthetical reference with the page number comes after the closing quotation marks but before the period at the end of the sentence.

AUTHOR PARAPHRASED

Put the date in parentheses right after the author's name; follow the date with the page.

McCullough (2001, p. 18) described John Adams's hands as those of someone used to manual labor.

John Adams's hands were those of a laborer, according to McCullough (2001, p. 18).

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2. AUTHOR NAMED IN PARENTHESES

If you do not mention an author in a signal phrase, put his or her name, a comma, and the year of publication in parentheses as close as possible to the quotation, paraphrase, or summary.

AUTHOR QUOTED

Give the author, date, and page in one parentheses, or split the information between two parentheses.

Adams is said to have had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (McCullough, 2001, p. 18).

One biographer (McCullough, 2001) has said John Adams had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (p. 18).

AUTHOR PARAPHRASED OR SUMMARIZED

Give the author, date, and page in one parentheses toward the beginning or the end of the paraphrase.

One biographer (McCullough, 2001, p. 18) described John Adams as someone who was not a stranger to manual labor.

John Adams's hands were those of a laborer (McCullough, 2001, p. 18).

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3. AUTHORS WITH THE SAME LAST NAME

If your reference list includes more than one person with the same last name, include initials in all documentation to distinguish the authors from one another.

Eclecticism is common in contemporary criticism (J. M. Smith, 1992, p. vii).

J. M. Smith (1992, p. vii) has explained that eclecticism is common in contemporary criticism.

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4. AFTER A BLOCK QUOTATION

If a quotation runs forty or more words, set it off from the rest of your text and indent it one-half inch (or five spaces) from the left margin without quotation marks. Place the page number(s) in parentheses after the end punctuation.

Kaplan (2000) captured ancient and contemporary Antioch for us:

At the height of its glory in the Roman-Byzantine age, when it had an amphitheater, public baths, aqueducts, and sewage pipes, half a million people lived in Antioch. Today the population is only 125,000. With sour relations between Turkey and Syria, and unstable politics throughout the Middle East, Antioch is now a backwater—seedy and tumbledown, with relatively few tourists. (p. 123)

Antioch's decline serves as a reminder that the fortunes of cities can change drastically over time.

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5. TWO AUTHORS

Always mention both authors. Use and in a signal phrase, but use an ampersand (&) in parentheses.

Carlson and Ventura (1990, p. v) wanted to introduce Julio Cortázar, Marjorie Agosín, and other Latin American writers to an audience of English-speaking adolescents.

According to the Peter Principle, "In a hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence" (Peter & Hull, 1969, p. 26).

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6. THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

In the first reference to a work by three to five persons, name all contributors. In subsequent references, name the first author followed by et al. Whenever you refer to a work by six or more contributors, name only the first author, followed by et al. Use and in a signal phrase, but use an ampersand (&) in parentheses.

Faigley, George, Palchik, and Selfe (2004, p. xii) have argued that where there used to be a concept called literacy, today's multitude of new kinds of texts has given us literacies.

It's easier to talk about a good movie than a good book (Sebranek, Meyer, & Kemper, 1990, p. 143).

Peilen et al. (1990, p. 75) supported their claims about corporate corruption with startling anecdotal evidence.

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7. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

If an organization has a long name that is recognizable by its abbreviation, give the full name and the abbreviation the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, use only the abbreviation. If the organization does not have a familiar abbreviation, use the full name each time you refer to it.

FIRST CITATION

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2008)

SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS

(APA, 2008)

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8. AUTHOR UNKNOWN

With reference books and newspaper editorials, among other things, you may not know the author of a work. Use the complete title if it is short; if it is long, use the first few words of the title under which the work appears in the reference list.

Webster's New Biographical Dictionary (1988) identifies William James as "American psychologist and philosopher" (p. 520).

A powerful editorial asserted that healthy liver donor Mike Hurewitz died because of "frightening" faulty postoperative care ("Every Patient's Nightmare," 2007).

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9. TWO OR MORE WORKS CITED TOGETHER

If you need to cite multiple works in the same parentheses, list them in the same order that they appear in your reference list, separated by semicolons.

Many researchers have argued that what counts as "literacy" is not necessarily learned at school (Heath, 1983; Moss, 2003).

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10. SOURCE QUOTED IN ANOTHER SOURCE

When you need to cite a source that was quoted in another source, let the reader know that you used a secondary source by adding the words as cited in.

During the meeting with the psychologist, the patient stated repeatedly that he "didn't want to be too paranoid" (as cited in Oberfield & Yasik, 2004, p. 294).

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11. WORK WITHOUT PAGE NUMBERS

Instead of page numbers, some electronic works have paragraph numbers, which you should include (preceded by the abbreviation para.) if you are referring to a specific part of such a source. In sources with neither page nor paragraph numbers, refer readers to a particular part of the source if possible, perhaps indicating a heading and the paragraph under the heading.

Russell's dismissals from Trinity College at Cambridge and from City College in New York City have been seen as examples of the controversy that marked the philosopher's life (Irvine, 2006, para. 2).

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12. AN ENTIRE WORK

You do not need to give a page number if you are directing readers' attention to an entire work. Identify the author in a signal phrase or in parentheses, and cite the year of publication in parentheses.

Kaplan (2000) considered Turkey and Central Asia explosive.

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13. AN ENTIRE WEBSITE

When you are citing an entire website (and not a specific document within the website), give the URL in the text. You do not need to include the website in your reference list. To cite part of a website, see no. 20.

Beyond providing diagnostic information, the website for the Alzheimer's Association includes a variety of resources for family and community support of patients suffering from Alzheimer's (http://www.alz.org).

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14. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Cite email, telephone conversations, interviews, personal letters, messages from nonarchived discussion groups or message boards, and other personal texts as personal communication, along with the person's initial(s), last name, and the date. You do not need to include such personal communications in your reference list.

The author and editors seriously considered alternative ways of demonstrating documentation styles (F. Weinberg, personal communication, November 14, 2007).

L. Strauss (personal communication, December 6, 2006) told about visiting Yogi Berra when they both lived in Montclair, New Jersey.



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Notes

APA recognizes that there are instances when writers of research papers may need to use content notes to give an explanation or information that doesn't fit into the paper proper. To signal a content note, place a superscript numeral in your text at the appropriate point. Your readers will know to look for a note beginning with the same superscript numeral on a separate page with the heading Notes, after your paper but before the reference list. If you have multiple notes, number them consecutively throughout your paper. Indent the first line of each note five spaces, and set all subsequent lines flush left.

Here is an example showing text and an accompanying content note from a book called In Search of Solutions: A New Direction in Psychotherapy (2003).

TEXT WITH SUPERSCRIPT

An important part of working with teams and one-way mirrors is taking the consultation break, as at Milan, BFTC, and MRI.1

CONTENT NOTE

1It is crucial to note here that, while working within a team is fun, stimulating, and revitalizing, it is not necessary for successful outcomes. Solution-oriented therapy works equally well when working solo.



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APA reference list

BOOKS

1. One author

2. Two or more works by the same author

3. Two or more authors

4. Organization or government as author

5. Author and editor

6. Edited collection

7. Work in an edited collection

8. Unknown author

9. Edition other than the first

10. Translation

11. Multivolume work

12. Article in a reference book

PERIODICALS

13. Article in a journal paginated by volume

14. Article in a journal paginated by issue

15. Article in a magazine

16. Article in a newspaper

17. Article by an unknown author

18. Review

19. Letter to the editor

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

20. Work from a nonperiodical website

21. Article in an online periodical or database

22. Article only available through a database

23. Article in an online reference work

24. Electronic book

25. Electronic discussion source

26. Blog entry

27. Online video

28. Podcast

OTHER KINDS OF SOURCES

29. Film, video, or DVD

30. Music recording

31. Proceedings of a conference

32. Television program

33. Software or computer program

34. Dissertation abstract

35. Dissertation

36. Technical or research report

HOW TO CITE SOURCES THAT APA DOES NOT COVER



APA REFERENCE LIST

A reference list provides full bibliographic information for every source cited in your text with the exception of entire websites and personal communications. This list should be alphabetized by authors' (or editors') last names. Works that do not have an identifiable author or editor are alphabetized by title. See the student essay at the end of this chapter for a sample reference list.

Books

BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK

For most books, you'll need to provide information about the author; the date of publication; the title and any subtitle; and the place of publication and publisher. You'll find this information on the book's title page and copyright page.

Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York, NY: Viking.

A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • DATES: If more than one year is given, use the most recent one.
  • TITLES: Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns and proper adjectives in titles and subtitles.
  • PLACE OF PUBLICATION: Give city followed by state (abbreviated) or country, if outside the United States (for example, Boston, MA; London, England; Toronto, Ontario, Canada). If more than one city is given, use the first. Do not include the state or country if the publisher is a university whose name includes it.
  • PUBLISHER: Use a shortened form of the publisher's name (Little, Brown for Little, Brown and Company), but retain Association, Books, and Press (American Psychological Association, Princeton University Press).
1. ONE AUTHOR

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title. Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of Internet addiction—and a winning strategy for recovery. New York, NY: Wiley.

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2. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR

If the works were published in different years, list them chronologically.

Lewis, B. (1995). The Middle East: A brief history of the last 2,000 years. New York, NY: Scribner.

Lewis, B. (2003). The crisis of Islam: Holy war and unholy terror. New York, NY: Modern Library.

If the works were published in the same year, list them alphabetically by title, adding "a," "b," and so on to the years.

Kaplan, R. D. (2000a). The coming anarchy: Shattering the dreams of the post cold war. New York, NY: Random House.

Kaplan, R. D. (2000b). Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. New York, NY: Random House.

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3. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

For two to seven authors, use this format.

First Author's Last Name, Initials, Next Author's Last Name, Initials, & Final Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title. Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Leavitt, S. D., & Dubner, S. J. (2006). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York, NY: Morrow.

Sebranek, P., Meyer, V., & Kemper, D. (1990). Writers INC: A guide to writing, thinking, and learning. Burlington, WI: Write Source.

For a work by eight or more authors, name just the first six authors, followed by three ellipses, and end with the final author (see no. 13 for an example from a journal article).

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4. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

Sometimes a corporation or government organization is both author and publisher. If so, use the word Author as the publisher.

Organization Name or Government Agency. (Year of publication). Title. Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Catholic News Service. (2002). Stylebook on religion 2000: A reference guide and usage manual. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Social Security Administration. (2008). Social Security: Retirement benefits. Washington, DC: Author.

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5. AUTHOR AND EDITOR

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of edited edition). Title. (Editor's Initials Last Name, Ed.). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher. (Original work[s] published year[s])

Dick, P. F. (2008). Five novels of the 1960s and 70s. (J. Lethem, Ed.). New York, NY: Library of America. (Original works published 1964–1977)

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6. EDITED COLLECTION

First Editor's Last Name, Initials, Next Editor's Last Name, Initials, & Final Editor's Last Name, Initials. (Eds.). (Year of edited edition). Title. Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Raviv, A., Oppenheimer, L., & Bar-Tal, D. (Eds.). (1999). How children understand war and peace: A call for international peace education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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7. WORK IN AN EDITED COLLECTION

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article or chapter. In Initials Last Name (Ed.), Title (pp. pages). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Harris, I. M. (1999). Types of peace education. In A. Raviv, L. Oppenheimer, & D. Bar-Tal (Eds.), How children understand war and peace: A call for international peace education (pp. 46–70). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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8. UNKNOWN AUTHOR

Title. (Year of publication). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Webster's new biographical dictionary. (1988). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

If the title page of a work lists the author as Anonymous, treat the reference-list entry as if the author's name were Anonymous, and alphabetize it accordingly.

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9. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (name or number ed.). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Burch, D. (2008). Emergency navigation: Find your position and shape your course at sea even if your instruments fail (2nd ed.). Camden, ME: International Marine/McGraw-Hill.

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10. TRANSLATION

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title (Translator's Initials Last Name, Trans.). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Hugo, V. (2008). Les misérables (J. Rose, Trans.). New York, NY: Modern Library. (Original work published 1862)

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11. MULTIVOLUME WORK

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (Vols. numbers). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Nastali, D. P. & Boardman, P. C. (2004). The Arthurian annals: The tradition in English from 1250 to 2000 (Vols. 1–2). New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA.

ONE VOLUME OF A MULTIVOLUME WORK

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of whole work: Vol. number. Title of volume. Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Spiegelman, A. (1986). Maus: Vol. 1. My father bleeds history. New York, NY: Random House.

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12. ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK

UNSIGNED

Title of entry. (Year). In Title of reference book (Name or number ed., Vol. number, pp. pages). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Macrophage. (2003). In Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed., p. 698). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

SIGNED

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference book (Vol. number, pp. pages). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Wasserman, D. E. (2006). Human exposure to vibration. In International encyclopedia of ergonomics and human factors (Vol. 2, pp. 1800–1801). Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

Periodicals

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BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ARTICLE

For most articles, you'll need to provide information about the author; the date; the article title and any subtitle; the periodical title; and any volume or issue number and inclusive page numbers. (APA also recommends including a DOI if one is available; for more on DOIs, see the section on Electronic Sources. For an example of a journal article that shows a DOI, see no. 21.) Here is an example of a basic entry for an article in a journal.

Ferguson, N. (2005). Sinking globalization. Foreign Affairs, 84(2), 64–77.

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A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • AUTHORS: List authors as you would for a book (see no. 1 and no. 3).
  • DATES: For journals, give year only. For magazines and newspapers, give year followed by a comma and then month or month and day. Do not abbreviate months.
  • TITLES: Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns and proper adjectives in titles and subtitles of articles. Capitalize the first and last words and all principal words of periodical titles. Do not capitalize a, an, the, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin the title of the periodical.
  • VOLUME AND ISSUE: For journals and magazines, give volume or volume and issue, as explained in more detail below. For newspapers, do not give volume or issue.
  • PAGES: Use p. or pp. for a newspaper article but not for a journal or magazine article. If an article does not fall on consecutive pages, give all the page numbers (for example, 45, 75–77 for a journal or magazine; pp. C1, C3, C5–C7 for a newspaper).
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13. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY VOLUME

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume, pages.

Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., . . . Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.

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14. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY ISSUE

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages.

Weaver, C., McNally, C., & Moerman, S. (2001). To grammar or not to grammar: That is not the question! Voices from the Middle, 8(3), 17–33.

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15. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE

If a magazine is published weekly, include the day and the month. If there are a volume number and an issue number, include them after the magazine title.

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume(issue), page(s).

Gregory, S. (2008, June 30). Crash course: Why golf carts are more hazardous than they look. Time, 171(26), 53.

If a magazine is published monthly, include the month(s) only.

Fox, D. (2008, February). Did life begin in ice? Funky properties of frozen water may have made life possible. Discover, 52(2), 58–60.

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16. ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER

If page numbers are consecutive, separate them with a dash. If not, separate them with a comma.

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p(p). page(s).

Schneider, G. (2005, March 13). Fashion sense on wheels. The Washington Post, pp. F1, F6.

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17. ARTICLE BY AN UNKNOWN AUTHOR

IN A MAGAZINE

Title of article. (Year, Month Day). Title of Periodical, volume(issue), page(s).

Hot property: From carriage house to family compound. (2004, December). Berkshire Living, 1(1), 99.

IN A NEWSPAPER

Clues in salmonella outbreak. (2008, June 21). New York Times, p. A13.

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18. REVIEW

IN A JOURNAL

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of review [Review of Title of Work, by Initials Last Name]. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), page(s).

Geller, J. L. (2005). The cock and bull of Augusten Burroughs [Review of Running with scissors, by A. Burroughs]. Psychiatric Services, 56, 364–365.

IN A MAGAZINE

Brandt, A. (2003, October). Animal planet [Review of the book Intelligence of apes and other rational beings]. by D. R. Rumb & D. A. Washburn]. National Geographic Adventure, 5(10), 47.

IN A NEWSPAPER

Morris, C. A. (2005, March 24). Untangling the threads of the Enron fraud [Review of the book Conspiracy of fools: A true story, by K. Eichenwald]. The New York Times, p. B9.

If the review does not have a title, include just the bracketed information about the work being reviewed.

Jarratt, S. C. (2000). [Review of the book Lend me your ear: Rhetorical constructions of deafness, by B. J. Brueggemann]. College Composition and Communication, 52, 300–302.

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19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR

IN A JOURNAL

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of letter [Letter to the editor]. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), page(s).

Rosner, W. (2001). An extraordinarily inaccurate assay for free testosterone is still with us [Letter to the editor]. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 2903.

IN A MAGAZINE

Jorrin, M. (2008, September 1). Mowing it [Letter to the editor]. The New Yorker, 84(36), 16.

IN A NEWSPAPER

Hitchcock, G. (2008, August 3). Save our species [Letter to the editor]. San Francisco Chronicle, p. P-3.

Electronic Sources

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BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ELECTRONIC SOURCE

Not every electronic source gives you all the data that APA would like to see in a reference entry. Ideally, you will be able to list author's or editor's name; date of first electronic publication or most recent revision; title of document; information about print publication if any; and retrieval information: DOI (Digital Object Identifier, a string of letters and numbers that identifies an online document) or URL (address of document or site). In some cases, additional information about electronic publication may be required (title of site, retrieval date, name of sponsoring institution). You will find most of those pieces of information in the following example.

Johnson, C. W. (2000). How our laws are made. Thomas: Legislative information on the Internet. Retrieved March 5, 2007, from the Library of Congress website: http://thomas.loc.gov/home/holam.txt

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A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • AUTHORS: List authors as you would for a print book or periodical.
  • TITLES: For websites and electronic documents, articles, or books, capitalize titles and subtitles as you would for a book; capitalize periodical titles as you would for a print periodical.
  • DATES: After the author, give the year of the document's original publication on the Web or of its most recent revision. If neither of those years is clear, use n.d. to mean "no date." For undated content or content that may change—like an "about us" statement or blog post—include the month (not abbreviated), day, and year that you retrieved the document. For content that's unlikely to change–like a published journal article or book excerpt–you don't need to include the retrieval date.
  • DOI OR URL: A DOI provides a permanent link to an online document, so when it's available, include the DOI instead of the URL in the reference. A DOI is often found on the first page of an article, but sometimes you'll need to click on a button labeled "Article" or "Cross-Ref" to find it. If you do not identify the sponsoring institution ("the Library of Congress website" in the example above), you do not need a colon before the URL or DOI. Don't include any punctuation at the end of the URL or DOI. If online material is presented in frames and no DOI is available, provide the URL of the home page or menu page. When a URL won't fit on one line, break the URL before most punctuation, but do not break http://.
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20. WORK FROM A NONPERIODICAL WEBSITE

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of work. Title of site. DOI or Retrieved Month Day, Year (if necessary), from URL

Cruikshank, D. (2009, June 15). Unlocking the secrets and powers of the brain. National Science Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=114979&org=NSF

To cite an entire website, include the URL in parentheses in an in-text citation. Do not list the website in your list of references.

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21. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE PERIODICAL OR DATABASE

When available, include the volume number and issue number as you would for a print source. If no DOI has been assigned, provide the URL of the home page or menu page of the journal or magazine, even for articles that you access through a database.

AN ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE JOURNAL

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Corbett, C. (2007). Vehicle-related crime and the gender gap. Psychology, Crime & Law, 13, 245–263. doi:10.1080/10683160600822022

AN ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE MAGAZINE

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume(issue). DOI or Retrieved Month Day, Year (if necessary), from URL

Bohannon, J. (2008, June 20). Slaying monsters for science. Science, 320(5883). doi:10.1126/science.320.5883.1592c

AN ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE NEWSPAPER

If the article can be found by searching the site, give the URL of the home page or menu page.

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from URL

Collins, G. (2008, June 21). Vice is nice. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

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22. ARTICLE ONLY AVAILABLE THROUGH A DATABASE

Some sources, such as an out-of-print journal or rare book, can only be accessed through a database. When no DOI is provided, give either the name of the database or its URL.

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. DOI or Retrieved from Name of database or URL

Simpson, M. (1972). Authoritarianism and education: A comparitive approach. Sociometry 35, 223–234. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org

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23. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE REFERENCE WORK

For online reference works like dictionaries or encyclopedias, give the URL of the home page or menu page if no DOI is provided.

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Smith, R. L. (2008). Ecology. In MSN Encarta. Retrieved from http://encarta.msn.com

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24. ELECTRONIC BOOK

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of book. DOI or Retrieved from URL

TenDam, H. (n.d.). Politics, civilization & humanity. Retrieved from http://onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=46&page=2

For an electronic book based on a print version, include a description of the digital format in brackets after the book title.

Blain, M. (2009). The sociology of terror: Studies in power, subjection, and victimage ritual [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www.powells.com/sub/AdobeDigitalEditionsPolitics.html?sec_big_link=1

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25. ELECTRONIC DISCUSSION SOURCE

If the name of the list to which to the message was posted is not part of the URL, include it after Retrieved from. The URL you provide should be for the archived version of the message or post.

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Subject line of message [Descriptive label]. Retrieved from URL

Baker, J. (2005, February 15). Re: Huffing and puffing [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from American Dialect Society electronic mailing list: http://listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0502C&L=ADS-L&P=R44

Do not include email or other nonarchived discussions in your list of references. Simply cite the sender's name in your text. See no. 14 for guidelines on identifying such sources in your text.

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26. BLOG ENTRY

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Web log post]. Retrieved from URL

Collins, C. (2009, August 19). Butterfly benefits from warmer springs? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.intute.ac.uk/blog/2009/08/19/butterfly-benefits-from-warmer-springs/

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27. ONLINE VIDEO

Last Name, Initials (Writer), & Last Name, Initials (Producer). (Year, Month Day posted). Title [Descriptive label]. Retrieved from URL

Coulter, J. (Songwriter & Performer), & Booth, M. S. (Producer). (2006, September 23). Code Monkey [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4Wy7gRGgeA

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28. PODCAST

Writer's Last Name, Initials. (Writer), & Producer's Last Name, Initials. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast. Title of website or program [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL

Britt, M. A. (Writer & Producer). (2009, June 7). Episode 97: Stanley Milgram study finally replicated. The Psych Files Podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/

Other Kinds of Sources

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29. FILM, VIDEO, OR DVD

Last Name, Initials (Producer), & Last Name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title [Motion picture]. Country: Studio.

Wallis, H. B. (Producer), & Curtiz, M. (Director). (1942). Casablanca [Motion picture]. United States: Warner.

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30. MUSIC RECORDING

Composer's Last Name, Initials. (Year of copyright). Title of song. On Title of album [Medium]. City, State or Country: Label.

Veloso, C. (1997). Na baixado sapateiro. On Livros [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Nonesuch.

If the music is performed by someone other than the composer, put that information in brackets following the title. When the recording date is different from the copyright date, put it in parentheses after the label.

Cahn, S., & Van Heusen, J. (1960). The last dance [Recorded by F. Sinatra]. On Sinatra reprise: The very good years [CD]. Burbank, CA: Reprise Records. (1991)

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31. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of paper. In Proceedings Title (pp. pages). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Heath, S. B. (1997). Talking work: Language among teens. In Symposium about Language and Society-Austin (pp. 27–45). Austin: Department of Linguistics at the University of Texas.

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32. TELEVISION PROGRAM

Last Name, Initials (Writer), & Last Name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title of episode [Descriptive label]. In Initials Last Name (Producer), Series title. City, State or Country: Network.

Mundy, C. (Writer), & Bernaro, E. A. (Director). (2007). In birth and death [Television series episode]. In E. A. Bernaro (Executive Producer), Criminal minds. New York, NY: NBC.

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33. SOFTWARE OR COMPUTER PROGRAM

Title and version number [Computer software]. (Year). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

The Sims 2: Holiday edition [Computer software]. (2005). Redwood City, CA: Electronic Arts.

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34. DISSERTATION ABSTRACT

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of dissertation. Title of Source, volume(issue), page(s).

Palenski, J. E. (1981). Running away: A sociological analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(12), 5251.

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35. DISSERTATION

ACCESSED ONLINE

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (accession number)

Knapik, M. (2008). Adolescent online trouble-talk: Help-seeking in cyberspace (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database. (AAT NR38024)

For a dissertation that you retrieve from the Web, include the name of institution after Doctoral dissertation. For example: (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina). End your citation with Retrieved from and the URL.

UNPUBLISHED

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Institution, City, State or Country.

Connell, E. (1996). The age of experience: Edith Wharton and the "divorce question" in early twentieth-century America (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

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36. TECHNICAL OR RESEARCH REPORT

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of report (Report number). Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Elsayed, T., Namata, G., Getoor, L., & Oard., D. W. (2008). Personal name resolution in email: A heuristic approach (Report No. LAMP-TR-150). College Park: University of Maryland.

How to Cite Sources That APA Does Not Cover

To cite a source for which APA does not provide guidelines, look at models similar to the source you are citing. Give any information readers will need in order to find it themselves—author; date of publication; title; publisher; information about electronic retrieval (DOI or URL); and any other pertinent information. You might want to try your citation yourself, to be sure it will lead others to your source.



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Sample research paper, APA style

Carolyn Stonehill wrote the following paper for a first-year writing course. It is formatted according to the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2009). While APA guidelines are used widely in linguistics and the social sciences, exact requirements may vary from discipline to discipline and course to course. If you're unsure about what your instructor wants, ask for clarification.

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