Vol 20. The Twentieth Century: Timelines

The Twentieth Century (1927–2000)

* Boldface titles indicate works in the anthology.

TEXTS CONTEXTS
1893 Rabindranath Tagore, Punishment  
1895 Higuchi Ichiyo, Child's Play  
ca. 1897–1902 Washington Matthews conducts studies of the Navajo Night Chant 1899–1902 Boer War in South Africa
  1900 Boxer uprisings in China protest European presence • Max Planck proposes quantum theory, the first step in the discovery of the atom
1902 Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness  
1903 Henry James, The Ambassadors 1903 Wright brothers invent the powered airplane
1905 Sigmund Freud, Dora (Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria) • Rubén Darío, Songs of Life and Hope • F. T. Marinetti, Futurist Manifesto 1905 Modern labor movement begins with foundation of International Workers of the World (IWW) • Partition of Bengal based on Hindu and Muslim populations
1907 August Strindberg, The Ghost Sonata 1907 Japanese immigration to the United States prohibited
1908 Gertrude Stein, Three Lives • Rainer Maria Rilke, New Poems  
  1909 Commercial manufacture of plastic begins
  1910 China abolishes slavery • Mexican Revolution (1910–11) • NAACP founded in United States • Post-Impressionist Exhibition in London
  1911 Revolution establishes Chinese Republic after 267 years of Manchu rule
1912 Rabindranath Tagore, Gitanjali • Thomas Mann, Death in Venice 1912–1913 Balkan wars
1913 Marcel Proust, Swann's Way, first volume of Remembrance of Things Past (1913–27) • D. H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers  
1914 James Joyce, Dubliners, which includes The Dead 1914–1918 World War I involves Europe, Turkey, and the United States
  1915 Albert Einstein formulates general theory of relativity • First transcontinental phone call, in America
1916 Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis • James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man  
1917 T. S. Eliot, Prufrock and Other Observations 1917 Russian Revolution overthrows Romanov Dynasty
1918 Lu Xun, Diary of a Madman, the first story in modern Chinese vernacular • Tristan Tzara, Dada Manifesto 1918 Women over 30 given vote in Great Britain
  1918–1920 Global influenza epidemic kills millions
  1919 League of Nations formed (U.S. Senate rejects membership, 1920)
1920 Edith Wharton, The Age of Innocence 1920 Mahatma Gandhi leads India's struggle for independence from Britain
1921 Luigi Pirandello, Six Characters in Search of an Author 1921–1929 Harlem Renaissance, black literary and artistic movement
1921–1924 Knud Rasmussen documents Inuit culture and collects Inuit Songs during the Fifth Thule Expedition  
1922 T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land • Paris publication of James Joyce, Ulysses (imported copies burned in U.S. Post Office) • Rainer Maria Rilke, Sonnets to Orpheus 1922 Turkey becomes a republic • Irish Free State established • USSR formed • Discovery of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen's tomb
1923 Rainer Maria Rilke, Duino Elegies 1923 Earthquakes destroy centers of Tokyo and Yokohama
1924 Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain • André Breton, First Surrealist Manifesto • Premchand, The Road to Salvation 1924 Insecticides first used
1925 Geriguigatugo and other tales narrated by Uke Iwagu Uo published in Italian and Bororo  
1926 Franz Kafka, The Castle • Paul Éluard, Capitol of Pain  
1927 Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse  
1928 William Butler Yeats, The Tower 1928 Sixty-five states sign Kellogg-Briand antiwar pact in Paris • First Five Year Plan in USSR • Penicillin discovered • First scheduled television broadcasts
1929 William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury 1929 Stock market crash heralds beginning of world economic crisis; Great Depression lasts until 1937
1932 Zuni Ritual Poetry published by anthropologist Ruth L. Bunzel  
1933 Federico García Lorca, Blood Wedding 1933 Adolf Hitler given dictatorial powers in Germany • Nazis build first concentration camps
1933–1937 Pablo Neruda, Residence on Earth 1934 Stalin begins purges of Communist Party
1935–1947 Kawabata Yasunari, Snow Country  
1936 Premchand, The Cow • Leo Frobenius, History of African Civilizations  
1937 Wallace Stevens, The Man with the Blue Guitar  
1938 Alfonsina Storni, Ocher  
1938–1941 Bertolt Brecht, The Good Woman of Setzuan  
1939 Aimé Césaire, Notebook of a Return to the Native Land 1939 Germany invades Poland and all Europe is drawn into World War II
1940 Richard Wright, Native Son  
  1941 United States and Japan enter World War II
1942 Albert Camus, The Stranger  
1943 T. S. Eliot, Four Quartets  
1944 Jorge Luis Borges, The Garden of Forking Paths  
1945 Léopold Sédar Senghor, Chants d'ombre 1945 World War II ends with dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki • United Nations, Arab League founded
  1946 Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech marks beginning of Cold War • Pan-African Federation formed
1947 Birago Diop, Tales of Amadou Koumba 1947 Religious massacres accompany partition of India and Pakistan into independent states • Transistor invented
1948 Ezra Pound, Pisan Cantos • Tadeusz Borowski, Farewell to Maria, which includes Ladies and Gentlemen, to the Gas Chamber 1948 Creation of Jewish state in Palestine
  1949 Communist People's Republic of China established • Apartheid instituted in South Africa
  1950–1953 Korean War involves North and South Korea, the United Nations, and China
1952 Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man 1952 Revolution in Egypt, which becomes a republic in 1953 • First hydrogen bomb
  1953 Discovery of DNA structure launches modern genetic science
1954 Kojima Nobuo, The American School  
1955 Alain Robbe-Grillet, The Voyeur • Juan Rulfo, Pedro Páramo  
1956 Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, The Key 1956 First Congress of Black Writers meets in Paris
1956–1957 Naguib Mahfouz, The Cairo Trilogy  
1957 Samuel Beckett, Endgame • Albert Camus, Exile and the Kingdom, which includes The Guest  
1958 Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart 1958 European Common Market established • Algerian War of Independence (1958–62)
1959 Tawfiq al-Hakim, The Sultan's Dilemma  
1960 Marguerite Duras, Hiroshima mon amour • Shono Junzo, Still Life • Clarice Lispector, Family Ties, which includes The Daydreams of a Drunk Woman 1960–1962 Independence for Belgian Congo, Uganda, Tanganyika, Nigeria
  1961 Soviet astronaut orbits earth
1962 Doris Lessing, The Golden Notebook • Alain Robbe-Grillet, Snapshots, which includes The Secret Room 1962–1973 United States engaged in Vietnam War
1963 Anna Akhmatova, Requiem • Naguib Mahfouz, God's World, which includes Zaabalawi • Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Matryona's Home  
1965 Recorded performance by Andrew Peynetsa of The Boy and the Deer  
  1966 Mao Tse-tung's Cultural Revolution attacks Confucian tradition and intellectuals in China (1966–69) • First Dakar Arts Festival provides showcase for African culture
1967 Gabriel García Márquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude  
1968 Kamau Brathwaite, Masks • Alice Munro, Dance of the Happy Shades, which includes Walker Brothers Cowboy  
  1969 American astronaut is first man on moon
1970 Derek Walcott, Dream on Monkey Mountain • A. B. Yehoshua, Three Days and a Child, which includes Facing the Forests • Gabriel García Márquez, Death Constant Beyond Love  
1972 Ingeborg Bachmann, Three Paths to the Lake, which includes The Barking  
  1973 Arab oil producers cut off shipments to nations supporting Israel; ensuing energy crisis reshapes global economy
1974 Leslie Marmon Silko, Yellow Woman  
1975 Wole Soyinka, Death and the King's Horseman  
1979 Mariama Bâ, So Long a Letter  
1980 Mahasweta Devi, Breast-Giver • Anita Desai, Clear Light of Day • Lorna Goodison, Tamarind Season 1980s Widespread concern as damage to the environment is increasingly documented
  1983–1984 Famine in Ethiopia • Ethnic and religious riots throughout India
  1986 Nuclear disaster in Chernobyl spreads radiation contamination throughout Europe
  1987 Floods destroy homes of millions in Bangladesh • World stock market crash
  1989 Mikhail Gorbachev restructures the Soviet state • Chinese government shoots thousands of protesters gathered in Tiananmen Square • Berlin Wall demolished
  1990 East and West Germany united
  1991 United States and USSR agree to arms reduction • Economic chaos and nationalist unrest bring end of Soviet Union
  1993 European Community, the West's largest trading unit, formed • World Wide Web established
  1994 Nelson Mandela becomes president of South Africa after first multiracial elections • Israel and PLO sign peace agreement establishing a Palestinian state and begin negotiating its conditions
  1997 Scientists in Scotland create Dolly, the clone of an adult sheep
  1999 A European common currency, the "euro," is issued
2000 Anita Desai, Diamond Dust, which includes The Rooftop Dwellers  
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