The Twentieth Century and After

Texts Contexts
1899, 1902 Joseph Conrad,Heart of Darkness  
  1900 Max Planck, quantum theory
  1901 First wireless communication
across the Atlantic
  1901-10 Reign of Edward VII
  1902 End of the Anglo-Boer War
  1903 Henry Ford introduces the first mass-produced car. Wright Brothers make the first successful airplane flight
  1905 Albert Einstein, theory of special relativity. Impressionist exhibition, London
1910 Bernard Shaw,Pygmalion 1910 Postimpressionist exhibition,
  1910-36 Reign of George V
1913 Ezra Pound, "A Few Don'ts by an Imagiste"  
1914 James Joyce,Dubliners. Thomas Hardy,Satires of Circumstance 1914-18 World War I
1914-15 Blast  
1916 Joyce,A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin
1917 T. S. Eliot, "The Love Song of
J. Alfred Prufrock"
1918 Gerard Manley Hopkins,Poems 1918 Armistice. Franchise Act grants vote to women thirty and over
1920 D. H. Lawrence,Women in Love. Wilfred Owen,Poems 1920 Treaty of Versailles. League of Nations formed
1921 William Butler Yeats,Michael
Robartes and the Dancer
1921-22 Formation of Irish Free State with Northern Ireland (Ulster) remaining part of Great Britain
1922 Katherine Mansfield,The Garden Party and Other Stories. Joyce,Ulysses. Eliot,The Waste Land  
1924 E. M. Forster,A Passage to India  
1927 Virginia Woolf,To the Lighthouse  
1928 Yeats,The Tower 1928 Women twenty-one and over
granted voting rights
1929 Woolf,A Room of One's Own.
Robert Graves,Goodbye to All That
1929 Stock market crash; Great
Depression begins
  1933 Hitler comes to power in Germany
1935 Eliot,Murder in the Cathedral  
  1936 Edward VIII succeeds George V, but abdicates in favor of his brother, crowned as George VI
  1936-39 Spanish Civil War
1937 David Jones,In Parenthesis  
1939 Joyce,Finnegans Wake. Yeats,Last Poems and Two Plays 1939-45 World War II
1940 W. H. Auden,Another Time 1940 Fall of France. Battle of Britain
  1941-45 The Holocaust
1943 Eliot,Four Quartets  
1945 Auden,Collected Poems. George Orwell,Animal Farm 1945 First atomic bombs dropped, on Japan
1946 Dylan Thomas,Deaths and
  1947 India and Pakistan become
independent nations
  1948 Empire Windrush brings West
Indians to U.K.
1949 Orwell,Nineteen Eighty-Four  
  1950 Apartheid laws passed in South Africa
1953 Premiere of Samuel Beckett's
Waiting for Godot
  1956 Suez crisis
  1957 Ghana becomes independent
1958 Chinua Achebe,Things Fall Apart  
  1960 Nigeria becomes independent
  1961 Berlin Wall erected
1962 Doris Lessing,The Golden
1962 Cuban missile crisis. Uganda,
Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago become independent
1964 Philip Larkin,The Whitsun
  1965 U.S. troops land in South Vietnam
1966 Nadine Gordimer,The Late
Bourgeois World
. Tom Stoppard,
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Jean Rhys,Wide Sargasso Sea
1966 Barbados and Guyana become
  1969 Apollomoon landing
1971 V. S. Naipaul,In a Free State 1971 Indo-Pakistan War, leading to
creation of Bangladesh
  1972 Britain enters European Common Market
  1973 U.S. troops leave Vietnam
1975 Seamus Heaney,North  
1979 Caryl Churchill, Cloud 9 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran; the shah flees. Soviets invade Afghanistan
  1979-90 Margaret Thatcher is British prime minister
1980 J. M. Coetzee,Waiting for the Barbarians 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War
1981 Salman Rushdie,Midnight's
. Brian Friel,Translations
  1982 Falklands War
1985 Production of Hanif Kureishi'sMy Beautiful Laundrette. Margaret Atwood,The Handmaid's Tale  
1988 Rushdie,The Satanic Verses  
1989 Kazuo Ishiguro,The Remains of the Day 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall. Tiananmen Square, Beijing, demonstration and massacre
1990 Derek Walcott,Omeros  
  1991 Collapse of the Soviet Union
1992 Thom Gunn,The Man with Night Sweats  
1993 Tom Stoppard, Arcadia  
  1994 Democracy comes to South Africa
1997 Arundhati Roy,The God of Small Things 1997 Labour Party victory in the U.K. ends eighteen years of Conservative government
  1998 British handover of Hong Kong to China. Northern Ireland Assembly established
1999 Carol Ann Duffy,The World's Wife  
2000 Zadie Smith,White Teeth  
2001 Ian McEwan,Atonement 2001 September 11 attacks destroy World Trade Center
2002 Paul Muldoon,Moy Sand and
2002 Euro becomes sole currency in most of European Union
  2003 Invasion of Iraq led by U.S. and U.K.
  2005 Bombings of London transport
2006 Kiran Desai,The Inheritance of Loss  
  2010 David Cameron is first Conservative Party prime minister in 13 years