CI´TIZEN. n.s. [civis,
Lat. citoyen, French.]
1. A freeman of a city; not a
foreigner; not a slave.
All inhabitants within these walls are
not properly citizens, but only
such as are called freemen.
2. A townsman; a man of trade;
not a gentleman.
When he speaks not like a citizen,
You find him like a soldier.
3. An inhabitant; a dweller in
Far from noisy Rome, secure, he lives;
And one more citizen to Sibyl gives.
To CI´VILIZE. v.a. [from civil.]
To reclaim from savageness and brutality;
to instruct in the arts of regular life.
We send the graces and the muses forth,
To civilize and to instruct the North.
Musaeus first, then Orpheus civilize
Mankind, and gave the world their deities.
Amongst those who are counted the civilized part
of mankind, this original law of nature
still takes place.
Osiris, or the Bacchus of the ancients,
is reported to have civilized the
Indians, and reigned amongst them fifty-two
CO´LONY. n.s. [colonia,
1. A body of people drawn from
the mother-country to inhabit some distant
To these new inhabitants and colonies he
gave the same law under which they were
born and bred.
Rooting out these two rebellious septs,
he placed English colonies in their
Osiris, or the Bacchus of the ancients,
is reported to have civilized the Indians,
planting colonies and building cities.
2. The country planted; a plantation.
The rising city, which from far you see,
Is Carthage; and a Trojan colony.
CO´MMERCE. n.s. [commercium, Latin.
It was anciently accented on the last syllable.]
Intercourse; exchange of one thing for another;
interchange of any thing; trade; traffick.
Places of publick resort being thus provided,
our repair thither is especially for mutual
conference, and, as it were, commerce to
be had between God and us.
How could communities,
Degrees in schools, and brotherhoods in cities,
Peaceful commerce from dividable shores,
But by degree stand in authentick place?
Troil. and Cress.
Instructed ships shall sail to quick commerce,
By which remotest regions are ally'd;
Which makes one city of the universe,
Where some may gain, and all may be supply'd.
These people had not any commerce with
the other known parts of the world.
In any country, that hath commerce with
the rest of the world, it is almost impossible
now to be without the use of silver coin.
CURIO´SITY. n.s. [from curious.]
1. Inquisitiveness; inclination
2. Nicety; delicacy.
When thou wast in thy gilt, and thy perfume,
they mockt thee for too much curiosity;
in thy rags thou knowest none, but art
despised for the contrary.
3. Accuracy; exactness.
Qualities are so weighed, that curiosity in
neither can make choice of either's
Our eyes and senses, however armed or
assisted, are too gross to discern the curiosity of
the workmanship of nature.
on the Creation.
4. An act of curiosity; nice
There hath been practised also a curiosity,
to set a tree upon the north-side of a
wall, and, at a little height, to draw
it through the wall, and spread it upon
the south-side; conceiving that the root
and lower part of the stock should enjoy
the freshness of the shade, and the upper
boughs and fruit, the comfort of the sun;
but it sorted not.
5. An object of curiosity; rarity.
We took a ramble together to see the curiosities of
this great town.
Freeholder, No. 47.
NA´TION. n.s. [nation,
Fr. natio, Latin.] A people distinguished
from another people; generally by their language,
original, or government.
If Edward III had prospered in his French
wars, and peopled with English the towns
which he won, as he began at Calais driving
out the French, his successors holding
the same course, would have filled all
France with our nation.
A nation properly signifies a great
number of families derived from the same
blood, born in the same country, and living
under the same government.
NA´TIONAL. adj. [national, Fr.
1. Publick; general; not private;
They in their earthly Canaan plac'd,
Long time shall dwell and prosper: but when sins
National interrupt their public peace.
Such a national devotion inspires
men with sentiments of religious gratitude,
and swells their hearts with joy and exultation.
Freeholder, No. 49.
The astonishing victories our armies have
been crowned with, were in some measure
the blessings returned upon that national charity
which has been so conspicuous.
God, in the execution of his judgments,
never visits a people with public and general
calamities, but where their sins are public
and national too.
2. Bigotted to one's own
NA´TIVE. adj. [nativus, Latin; natif-ve, Fr.]
Produced by nature; natural, not artificial.
She more sweet than any bird on bough,
Would oftentimes amongst them bear a part,
And strive to pass, as she could well enough,
Their native musick by her skilful art.
Q. b. ii.
This doctrine doth not enter by the ear,
But of itself is native in the breast.
2. Natural; such as is according
The members retired to their homes, reassumed
the native sedateness of their temper.
3. Conferred by birth.
But ours is a privilege ancient and native,
Hangs not on an ordinance, or power legislative;
And first, 'tis to speak whatever we please.
4. Relating to the birth; pertaining
to the time or place of birth.
If these men have defeated the law, and
outrun native punishment; though
they can outstrip men they have no wings
to fly from God.
Many of our bodies shall, no doubt,
Find native graves.
5. Original; natural.
Have I now seen death? is this the way
I must return to native dust? O sight
Of terror, foul, and ugly to behold.
1. One born in any place; original
All cause unborn, could never be the native
Of our so frank donation.
Make no extirpation of the natives,
under pretence of planting religion, God
surely will no way be pleased with such
Advice to Villiers.
Tully, the humble mushroom scarcely known,
The lowly native of a country town.
There stood a monument to Tacitus the
historian, to the emperors Tacitus and
Florianus, all natives of the place.
PI´RATE. n.s. [pirata, Lat., pirate,
1. A sea-robber.
Wrangling pirates that fall out
In sharing that which you have pill'd from me.
Pirates all nations are to prosecute,
not so much in the right of their own fears,
as upon the band of human society.
Relate, if business or the thirst of gain
Engage your journey o'er the pathless main,
Where savage pirates seek through seas unknown
The lives of others, vent'rous of their own.
2. Any robber; particularly a
bookseller who seizes the copies of other
PRI´VATEER. n.s. [from private.]
A ship fitted out by private men to plunder
He is at no charge for a fleet, further
than providing privateers, wherewith
his subjects carry on a pyratical war at
their own expence.
SA´VAGE. n.s. [from
the adjective.] A man untaught and uncivilized;
Long after these times were they but savages.
The seditious lived by rapine and ruin
of all the country, omitting nothing of
that which savages, enraged in the
height of their unruly behaviour, do commit.
To deprive us of metals is to make us
mere savages; to change our corn
for the old Arcadian diet, our houses and
cities for dens and caves, and our clothing
for skins of beasts: 'tis to bereave
us of all arts and sciences, nay, of revealed
TOUR n.s. [tour, French.]
1. Ramble; a roving journey.
I made the tour of all the king's
Were it permitted, he'd make the tour of
the whole system of the sun.
and Pope's Mart. Scrib.
2. Turn; revolution. In both
these senses it is rather French than English.
First Ptolemy his scheme celestial wrought,
And of machines a wild provision brought;
Orbs centrick and eccentrick he prepares,
Cycles and epicycles, solid spheres
In order plac'd, and with bright globes inlaid,
To solve the tours by heavenly bodies made.
3. In Milton it is probably
tow'r; soar; elevation.
The bird of Jove stoop'd from his
Two birds of gayest plume before him drove.
TRADE. n.s. [tratto, Italian.]
1. Traffick; commerce; exchange
of goods for other goods; or for money.
Whosoever commands the sea, commands the trade;
whosoever commands the trade of
the world, commands the riches of the world,
and consequently the world itself.
Trade increases in one place and
decays in another.
2. Occupation; particular employment
whether manual or mercantile, distinguished
from the liberal arts or learned professions.
Appoint to every one that is not able
to live of his freehold a certain trade of
life; the which trade he shall be
bound to follow.
How dizzy! half way down
Hangs one that gathers samphire, dreadful trade.
I'll mountebank their loves, and come
Of all the trades in Rome.
Fear and piety,
Instruction, manners, mysteries, and trades,
Decline to your confounding contraries.
The rude Equicolae,
Hunting their sport, and plund'ring was their trade.
Fight under him; there's plunder to
A captain is a very gainful trade.
TRANSLA´TION. n.s. [translatio,
Lat. translation, Fr.]
1. Removal; act of removing.
His disease was an asthma; the cause a
metastasis or translation of humours
from his joints to his lungs.
3. The act of turning into another
A book of his travels hath been honoured
with translation into many languages.
Vulgar Errors, b. i.
Nor ought a genius less than his that
Attempt translation; for transplanted wit,
All the defects of air and soil doth share,
And colder brains like colder climates are.
4. Something made by translation;
Of both translations, the better
I acknowledge that which cometh nearer
to the very letter of the very original
TRA´VEL. n.s. [travail,
Fr. from the noun.]
1. Journey; act of passing from
place to place.
Love had cut him short,
Confin'd within the purlieus of his court.
Three miles he went, nor farther could retreat,
His travels ended at his country-seat.
Mingled send into the dance
Moments fraught with all the treasures,
Which thy eastern travel views.
2. Journey of curiosity or instruction.
Let him spend his time no more at home,
Which would be great impeachment to his age,
In having known no travel in his youth.
Travel in the younger sort is a
part of education; in the elder a part
Essays, No. 18.
A man not enlightened by travel of
reflexion, grows as fond of arbitrary power,
to which he hath been used, as of barren
countries, in which he has been born and
of occurrences and observations of a journey
into foreign parts.
A book of his travels hath been
honoured with the translation of many languages.
Histories engage the soul by sensible
occurrences; as also voyages, travels,
and accounts of countries.
VIEW. n.s. [from
You should tread a course
Pretty, and full of view; yea, haply, near
The residence of Posthumus.
Vast and indefinite views, which
drown all apprehensions of the uttermost
objects, are condemned by good authors.
The walls of Pluto's palace are in view.
Cut wide views through mountains
to the plain,
You'll wish your hill, or shelter'd hill again.
2. Sight; power of beholding.
Some safer resolution I've in view.
I go, to take for ever from your view,
Both the lov'd object, and the hated too.
These things duly weighed, will give us
a clear view into the state of human
Instruct me other joys to prize,
With other beauties charm my partial eyes;
Full in my view set all the bright abode,
And make my soul quit Abelard for God.
3. Act of seeing.
Of dogs and men, his wakeful ear does wound;
Willing to think th'illusions of his fear
Had giv'n this false alarm; but straight his view
Confirms that more than all he fears is true.
Objects near our view are thought
greater than those of a larger size, that
are more remote.
4. Sight; eye.
She was not much struck with those objects
that now presented themselves to her view.
5. Survey; examination by the
Time never will renew,
While we too far the pleasing path pursue,
Surveying nature with too nice a view.
6. Intellectual survey.
If the mind has made this inference by
finding out the intermediate ideas, and
taking a view of the connection
of them, it has proceeded rationally.
7. Space that may be taken in
by the eye; reach of sight.
The fame through all the neighb'ring
When now the Trojan navy was in view.
8. Appearance; show.
In that accomplish'd mind,
Helpt by the night, new graces find;
Which, by the splendour of her view,
Dazzl'd before we never knew.
9. Display; exhibition to the
sight or mind.
To give a right view of this mistaken
part of liberty, would any one be a changeling,
because he is less determined by wise considerations
than a wise man?
10. Prospect of interest.
No man sets himself about any thing, but
upon some view or other, which serves
him for a reason.
11. Intention; design.
He who sojourns in a foreign country,
refers what he sees to the state of things
at home; with that view he makes
all his reflections.
With a view to commerce, in returning
from his expedition against the Parthians,
he passed through Egypt.
VOY´AGE. n.s. [voyage,
1. A travel by sea.
Guyon forward 'gan his voyage make,
With his black palmer, that him guided still.
Our ships went sundry voyages,
as well to the pillars of Hercules, as
to other parts in the Atlantick and Mediterranean
This great man acted like an able pilot
in a long voyage; contented to sit
in the cabin when the winds were allay'd,
but ready to resume the helm when the storm
2. Course; attempt; undertaking.
A low phrase.
If he shou'd intent his voyage towards
my wife, I wou'd turn her loose to
him; and what he gets more of her than
sharp words, let it lie on my head.
If you make your voyage upon her,
and prevail, I am no further your enemy.
3. The practice of travelling.
All nations have interknowledge of one
another, by voyage into foreign
parts, or strangers that come to them.