The Nobel Prize winner Jacob once said, “the dream of every cell is to become two cells.” Understanding what factors influence microbial cell division is important for industrial, medical and fundamental biological reasons. This chapter starts with a discussion of what nutrients are required for bacterial growth and the various mechanisms bacteria use to acquire these nutrients from their environment. This information also serves as an introduction to the Metabolism and Biochemistry chapters, 14–16. Next the chapter investigates laboratory techniques for culturing and counting bacteria. The growth of bacteria under various culture conditions is examined. The chapter concludes with bacterial biofilms and differentiation.